Answer the next three questions with respect to the following...

Question

# Answer the next three questions with respect to the following...

Answer the next three questions with respect to the following paragraph

Forty UCSC undergraduates are recruited to participate in a study on confidence. The students are given a confidence questionnaire and then rank ordered based on confidence. The 20 students with the highest confidence are placed in Group A. The 20 students with the lowest confidence are placed in Group B. Half of the participants in both Group A and Group B are then randomly assigned to attend a three-day leadership retreat. The other half of the participants in each group are assigned to serve as control participants and do not attend the retreat. One week later, all participants are given a final confidence questionnaire.

2 x 2 Factorial Design (zero quasi-experimental variables)

2 x 2 Factorial Design (one quasi-experimental variable)

2 x 2 Factorial Design (two quasi-experimental variables)

Based on the idea of regression to the mean, participants who are selected for group B (low confidence) and who are not assigned to attend the retreat are most likely to exhibit:

Higher confidence on the final questionnaire than they did on the initial questionnaire

Lower confidence on the final questionnaire than they did on the initial questionnaire

The same confidence on the final questionnaire as they did on the initial questionnaire

Regarding which of the following effects can the researchers potentially make causal inferences?

Simple effect of attending the retreat (for Group A)

Simple effect of attending the retreat (for Group B)

Main effect of attending the retreat

all of the above

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