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Sedimentary Rocks 103 TABLE 4.3 SEDIMENTARY ROCKS WITH VISIBLE GRAINS Grain Size Description Sedimentary Rock Name Clasts or Grains are all shell fragments; no mud; Coquina allochems fizzes in hydrochloric acid larger than 2 mm Clasts and matrix are fine grained; clasts Intraclastic limestone are limestone and may be flat and laminated; fizzes in hydrochloric acid Matrix color variable; multiple clast Breccia (angular clasts) lithologies; clasts differ from matrix in Conglomerate color or composition (rounded clasts) Clasts or White or colorless grains, mostly quartz Quartz sandstone Grains allochems smaller than Contains pink, gray, or white feldspar Arkose visible 2 mm (look for cleavage); feldspar grains may be weathered to white kaolinite Contains rock fragment grains, mostly Litharenite or dark green or gray grains (such as lithic sandstone or basalt or shale fragments) graywacke Round grains with concentric Oolitic limestone laminations, fizzes in acid Dark red to brown, red-brown streak, Oolitic ironstone may contain replaced oolites or fossils, or fossiliferous may fizz in hydrochloric acid, may be ironstone or iron oxide dense and heavy concretions TABLE 4.4 SEDIMENTARY ROCKS GRAINS THAT ARE NOT READILY VISIBLE Grain Size Reaction to Acid Description Sedimentary Rock Name Fizzes in HCI White, soft, and powdery Chalk acid Gray, black, brown or tan; compact; Micrite or calcilutite dense; very fine grained (clay-sized) Fossils in lime mud matrix Fossiliferous limestone Grains Coarse crystalline mosaic; brown and Travertine not white color bands; may be cylindrical visible (stalactite or stalagmite) Fine to coarse crystalline mosaic; Crystalline limestone compact, dense, massive Fizzes in acid Gray or black, weathers yellowish gray Dolostone when scratched to brown; compact, dense, massive; and powdered dolomite

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Note: The sedimentary rock shown here is a Terrigenous Clastic Sedimentary rock. It does not react with dilute hydrochloric (HCI) acid. Question A. Determine the grain Size Class of the clastic sediment present in the rock (Use Table 4.1: "Simplified grain size classification", Page 88; and the relevant descriptions in the chapter). Gravel/ o Sand/ Mud (Select one) Question B. Identify the Sediment composition (Use Table 4.3 and 4.4:, Page 103; and the relevant descriptions in the chapterpage 87 to 92). o Rounded fragments of Rock (or mineral)/ o Angular fragments of Rock (or mineral)/ o Quartz grains/ Mixture of Clay minerals, quartz and rock fragments (Select one) Question C. Identify the Sediment composition (Use Table 4.3 and 4.4:, Page 103; and the relevant descriptions in the chapterpage 87 to 92). Question D. Summing Up. How did this rock form? (Sedimentary rocks form due to the compaction and cementation of sediment grains/particles. Rewrite this description by adding some details of the sedimentary rock in question.)

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QUESTION 9 To complete this question you will need to examine the sedimentary rock shown in the ollowing photos and answer questions. Shown here is the same rock at different magnifications. Note: The sedimentary rock shown here is a Terrigenous Clastic Sedimentary rock. It does not react with dilute hydrochloric (HCI) acid.

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Answer & Explanation
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Question A ) Gravel (Grain size 2mm to 64 mm)

 

Question B )Angular fragment of rock (or mineral)

 

Question C ) It is composed of a variety of minerals and rock fragments .The clasts also differ from the matrix.

 

Question D )Breccia is formed by the accumulation of shattered, angular particles of rock or mineral waste.
The base of an outcrop, where mechanical weathering debris collects, is one of the most prevalent places for breccia formation.Another location is in stream deposits near the outcrop or on an alluvial fan. 

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