he detachment and downslope movement of rock and soil under the...

he detachment and downslope movement of rock and soil under the direct influence of gravitiation stress is called Mass Wasting. Sediment deposited by Mass Wasting processes is referred to as ______.

Question 1 options:





none of these answers are appropriate

Question 2 (5 points)


True or False: Out of the three types of Flows, Earth Flows are the fastest.

Question 2 options:


Question 4 (5 points)


A _____ can be defined as the area drained by a stream and all of its tributaries.

Question 4 options:

an aquifer

an aquiclude

a drainage basin

a drainage divide

none of these are correct

Question 5 (5 points)


A threshold angle on an inclined plain (a slope) that if exceeded results in the downslope movement of rock or soil. This is the definition of ______.

Question 5 options:

angle of repose

angle of wasting

angle of response

angle of criticality

angle of relief

Question 6 (5 points)


The strength of hydrogen bonds between water molecules allows water to have ______, which is why it forms droplets and does not stay flat.

Question 6 options:



surface tension


none of these are correct answers

Question 7 (5 points)


The effectiveness and efficiency of water to ______ depends on two factors tied to the soil/sediment. These are porosity and permeability.

Question 7 options:






Question 8 (5 points)


True or False: Undercutting a slope decreases slope angle and decreases the likelihood of mass wasting.

Question 8 options:


Question 9 (5 points)


_____ water is a type of water that flows through soil and sediment.

Question 9 options:





none of these answers are correct

Answer & Explanation
Verified Solved by verified expert

Question 1: Colluvium

By mass wasting or sheet erosion, colluvium, or dirt and rubble, collect at the base of a slope. It typically consists of angular fragments that aren't sorted by size and can contain slabs of bedrock that dip down toward the cliff, suggesting both their origin and the fact that slumping was used to move them. Colluvium can be inter-fingered with and indistinguishable from alluvium at the valley's base. 

Question 2: False

The flow of watersaturated earth material over an impermeable surface, such as permafrost, is a form of earthflow known as solifluction. It is popular in exceptionally cold climates, such as Alaska and Canada. Just the first few feet of frozen land (the active layer) thaws in the spring, becoming saturated rapidly and steadily flowing over the permanently frozen permafrost underneath. On even the gentlest of slopes, solifluction can occur. The migrating material drags the soil plants along like a wrinkled green blanket when it isn't heavy enough to tear it apart. At the root, the dirt gradually rests on flat land. A mudflow is a liquidy mass of dirt, rock debris, and water that rushes down a well-defined path. It's viscous and muddy in colour, and it's strong enough to lift big vehicles and houses. Heavy rainfall saturates the loose soil and sediment, causing mudflows in mountainous semiarid areas with scarce vegetation. They're both an inevitable product of volcanic ash buildups on volcanoes' flanks, as well as forest fires that expose the soil to accelerated erosion. A lahar is a mudflow that originates on a volcanic slope. The debris avalanche, a rapidly churning mass of rock debris, mud, water, and air that races down very steep slopes, is the deadliest form of debris flow. It's been suggested that trapped air serves as a cushion between the rubble and the underlying floor, raising the speed of an avalanche.

Question 4 a drainage basin

Any area of land where precipitation gathers and flows into a common source, such as a river, lake, or other body of water, is referred to as a drainage basin. Both surface water from rain runoff, snowmelt, and adjacent streams that flow downslope into the shared source, as well as groundwater under the earth's surface, are included in the drainage basin. In a hierarchical pattern, drainage basins attach to other drainage basins at lower elevations, with smaller sub-drainage basins flowing into another typical outlet. Catchment area, drainage basin, runoff area, river basin, water basin, and impluvium are all words that are used interchangeably with drainage basin. The term watershed is widely used to refer to a drainage basin in North America, but it is only used in its original sense as a drainage divide in other English-speaking nations. The water in a closed drainage system, also known as an endorheic basin, converges to a single point within the basin called a sink, which may be a natural lake, a dry lake, or a point where surface water is lost underground.

Question 5. angle of repose

The angle of repose, also known as the critical angle of repose, of a granular material is the steepest angle of descent or dip that can be stacked without slumping relative to the horizontal plane. The layer on the slope face is on the brink of slipping at this angle. The angle of repose can be anywhere between 0 and 90 degrees. The angle of repose is influenced by the morphology of the material; flat, rounded sand grains cannot be stacked as steeply as rugged, interlocking sands. Solvent additives may also impact the angle of repose. A conical pile forms as bulk granular materials are dumped onto a horizontal floor. The angle of repose is the internal angle created by the pile's surface and the horizontal surface, and it is defined by the mass, surface area, and shapes of the particles, as well as the material's coefficient of friction. Low-angle-of-repose materials shape flatter piles than high-angle-of-repose materials.

Question 6 Condensation

Water's hydrogen bonding creates certain peculiar but essential properties. At room temperature, most chemical compounds with a density similar to water are gases. Water molecules are able to remain condensed in the liquid state thanks to tight hydrogen bonds.

Question 7 infiltrate

Water on the ground surface infiltrates the soil by diffusion. It is widely used in the fields of hydrology and soil science. The maximum rate of infiltration is known as the infiltration ability. It is most commonly measured in meters per day, but other units of distance over time can be used if appropriate. If the moisture content of the soil surface layers increases, the penetration potential of the soil reduces. Unless there is a physical barrier, flooding can occur if the precipitation rate exceeds the penetration rate. Infiltration speeds can be measured using infiltrometers, permeameters, and rainfall simulators, among other instruments. Any material has a certain amount of porosity, it refers to how much free space there is inside a substance. Porosity (empty space) occurs between the grains of minerals in a soil or rock. The grains in gravel are big, and there is a lot of empty space between them because they don't match together well. The porosity of a substance like dirt, sand, and clay, on the other hand, is much lower so the finer grains occupy the gaps. Water can attempt to fill the empty spaces in a substance, because the volume of water it will retain is directly related to its porosity. The proportion of free space that occurs within a porous media is used to assess porosity. Porosity is closely related to permeability, which is another inherent property of all materials. The degree to which pore spaces are connected to one another is referred to as permeability. If the material has a high permeability, the pore spaces are connected, allowing water to flow from one to the other; however, if the material has a low permeability, the pore spaces are separated, trapping water within them. For example, in gravel, all of the pores are well connected, allowing water to flow freely; however, in clay, the majority of the pore spaces are blocked, preventing water from flowing freely.

Question 8 False

Undercutting - a slope may be undercut by streams eroding their banks or by wave activity off the shore, leaving it fragile. Undercutting affects gravity which is the primary force that induces mass migration is gravity. Gravity is a power that works on everything on Earth's surface, pushing everything in the direction of the Earth's center. The force of gravity works backward on a flat surface parallel to the Earth's surface. The material can not move under the influence of gravity as long as it stays on the smooth surface. Naturally, whether the substance that forms the flat surface weakens or collapses, the unsupported support mass will collapse.

Question 9  capillary water

Groundwater is the world's biggest liquid fresh water source, where it can be found in aquifers, porous soil, and sediment, with water in between. Capillary action, which explains how water travels through a porous medium, carries water from moist soil to dry areas. Aquifers can be found at varying depths. Others are located only under the horizon, and others are found far deeper beneath the earth's crust. Many deserts are above aquifers, and an area can have several aquifers under it. An aquifer under a desert's source region is likely to be far away from the aquifer's location; for example, it may be in a mountainous place.


Step-by-step explanation


Mücher, H., van Steijn, H., & Kwaad, F. (2018). Colluvial and mass wasting deposits. In Interpretation of micromorphological features of soils and regoliths (pp. 21-36). Elsevier.

Kenyon, N. H. (1987). Mass-wasting features on the continental slope of northwest Europe. Marine Geology, 74(1-2), 57-77.

Saecker, M. E., & Nathanson, G. M. (1993). Collisions of protic and aprotic gases with hydrogen bonding and hydrocarbon liquids. The Journal of chemical physics, 99(9), 7056-7075.

Parker, R. N., Densmore, A. L., Rosser, N. J., De Michele, M., Li, Y., Huang, R., ... & Petley, D. N. (2011). Mass wasting triggered by the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake is greater than orogenic growth. Nature Geoscience, 4(7), 449-452.