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a. is not as attractive as utilizing primary data b. can be both...

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a. is not as attractive as utilizing primary data b. can be both...

a. is not as attractive as utilizing primary data
b. can be both time consuming and expensive
c. requires the use of computing equipment and transcription services d. provides the option of investigating large data sets

2. The National Crime Victimization Survey, an example of secondary data, is known for all of the following with the exception of ______.
a. It contains a large sample size.
b. It is considered to be high quality.

c. It is locally representative. d. It is easily accessible.

3. Which of the following reporting programs provides detailed information pertaining to murder and manslaughter?
a. Uniform Crime Reporting Program
b. Summary Reporting System

c. Supplemental Homicide Reports
d. National Incident Based Reporting System

4. Collecting data on individuals' income, education levels, employment status, and housing characteristics is the function of the ______.
a. American Community Survey
b. Current Population Survey

c. National Crime Victimization Survey d. Police-Public Contact Survey

5. Data that includes longitude and latitude coordinates of a particular research area is called ______.
a. de-identified data
b. cross-sectional data

c. public use data d. geospatial data

6. Zaykowski used which of the following secondary data sources in her research? a. Supplemental Homicide Reports
b. National Crime Victimization Survey
c. National Incident-Based Reporting System

d. Current Population Survey

7. The Law Enforcement Officers Killed and Assaulted data set, which includes information on incidents resulting in the assault and killing of on-duty officers, is a part of which of the following?
a. National Crime Victimization Survey

b. Bureau of Justice Statistics
c. National Incident Based Reporting System d. Uniform Crime Report Program

8. Which of the following agencies collects data about economic conditions in the U.S. labor force that can be used to encourage economic growth and improve standards of living for Americans?

a. Department of Commerce
b. Federal Bureau of Investigation
c. Center for Disease Control and Prevention d. Department of Justice

9. Statistical Analysis Centers state-level data gathering agencies are comparable to which of the following agencies?
a. U.S. Department of Commerce
b. Bureau of Justice Statistics

c. Census Bureau
d. U.S. Department of Justice

10. The Interuniversity Consortium for Political and Social Research's main role is to archive data from which of the following fields?
a. political and social research
b. political and health and human development research

c. social research and natural science research
d. health and human development and natural science research

Chapter 10

11. The work of crime mapping was introduced by a(n) ______. a. scientist and criminologist
b. mathematician and lawyer
c. criminologist and lawyer

d. anthropologist and mathematician

12. Which of the following type of data tracks how often something has happened? a. raster data
b. frequency data
c. vector data

d. geospatial data

13. Which of the following are types of spatial data used in geographic information systems? a. frequency data and cross-sectional data
b. raster data and vector data
c. spectral data and longitudinal data

d. vector data and cross-sectional data

14. Points, lines, and polygons are types of ______ data that are used in geographic information systems on maps.
a. raster data
b. frequency data

c. vector data d. spectral data

15. Satellite images and aerial photographs are examples of which of the following type of data? a. vector data
b. frequency data
c. spectral data

d. raster data

16. Which of the following type of crime analysis has the goal of quickly clearing criminal cases by collecting data, identifying patterns, and developing possible leads?
a. strategic
b. tactical

c. administrative d. educational

17. CompStat is used under which of the following crime analysis techniques? a. strategic
b. educational
c. administrative

d. tactical

18. Which one of the following researchers tested the efficacy of an offender-focused intervention strategy using crime analysis techniques?
a. Dodge
b. Zaykowski

c. Cuevas d. Santos

19. Which of the following methods focuses on the spatial clustering of crimes across an entire study area?
a. hot spot mapping techniques
b. risk terrain modeling

c. global statistical tests
d. local indicators of spatial association statistics

20. PredPol develops crime forecasts based on the following with the exception of ______. a. the type of offender that committed the crime
b. the location of historical crime data
c. when the crimes occurred

d. the type of crime that was committed

Quiz 6

Chapter 11

21. Which of the following populations is considered to be the most vulnerable in evaluation research?
a. individuals administering the program
b. individuals conducting the evaluation

c. individuals responsible for the funding of the program d. individuals receiving the benefits

22. Principles, rules, and laws that guide a government, organization, or people are called ______.
a. interactions
b. politics

c. programs d. policies

23. Identifying the problem to be solved and then advocating for it to be considered by policymakers is referred to as ______.
a. policy formation
b. policy implementation

c. agenda setting d. evaluation

24. Which of the following types of evaluation research is used to make a comprehensive assessment of a program after program implementation?
a. process evaluation
b. formative evaluation

c. summative evaluation
d. needs assessment evaluation

25. Which of the following types of evaluation is used to understand if an existing program is changing over time?
a. process evaluation
b. needs assessment evaluation

c. summative evaluation d. outcome evaluation

26. Which of the following types of evaluation measures the effectiveness of a program in regard to the target population?
a. process evaluation
b. needs assessment evaluation

c. outcome evaluation d. impact evaluation

27. Graphic depictions that illustrate how a program will ideally be implemented and operate are called ______.
a. outputs
b. systematic information

c. logic models d. inputs

28. Training or education is part of which step of a logic model? a. short-term outcomes
b. outputs
c. inputs

d. long-term outcomes

29. Reduced recidivism is an example of which of the following logic model components? a. inputs
b. outputs
c. long-term outcomes

d. short-term outcomes

30. Increased justice and safer communities are examples of which logic model components? a. inputs
b. outputs
c. long-term outcomes

d. short-term outcomes

Chapter 12

31. The primary purpose of researchers conducting research is to ______. a. publish their work
b. receive notoriety for their findings
c. answer a research question

d. teach students how to conduct research

32. A univariate analysis involves the analysis of how many variables? a. 1
b. 2
c. 3

d. 4+

33. Quantitative analysis and findings should begin with which of the following? a. an abstract containing details of the entire study
b. a research question
c. a description of the data

d. recommendations for future research

34. In a data analysis, the "n" usually refers to the ______. a. median
b. range
c. percentage

d. sample size

35. A group of descriptive statistics that numerically describe the "typical" case and include the mean, median, and mode are referred to as ______.
a. situational contexts
b. spatial descriptions

c. measures of dispersion
d. measures of central tendency

36. The value appearing most often in a data set is called the ______. a. range
b. mode
c. median

d. mean

37. Which of the following is the final step of qualitative data analysis? a. organizing the data
b. coding the data
c. descriptive analysis

d. identify a framework

38. Extreme values in a data distribution that are much lower or higher than the other distribution scores are called ______.
a. deductions
b. variances

c. ranges d. outliers

39. The ______ represents the numeric center or midpoint of a data distribution. a. median
b. mode
c. mean

d. range

40. Which type of analysis is used when more than two groups are being tested for differences? a. analysis of variance
b. correlation analysis
c. regression analysis

d. second-order analysis

Answer & Explanation

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