Question

Provide a detailed overview of the four major components of the...

Provide a detailed overview of the four major components of the corrections system: Probation, Parole, Jail, Prison. Included should be the function and purpose of each and how each works within the system and with the other components.


Discuss and describe (in detail) the three basic functions of an adult probation officer: caseload, supervision, & PSI reports. Which of the three is most important in your viewpoint and why?


Explain, in detail, what is meant by "diversion programs" and provide some examples. What are the major goals of these types of programs? What is your personal viewpoint on these types of sentencing options - for what type of offenses should they be used?


Tomorrow you will appear before the judge. Are you hoping for an indeterminate sentence of 10 years incarceration and 5 years parole, or a determinate sentence of 12 years? Why, specifically did you choose that option? Compare and contrast the two types of sentencing models. 


Provide a detailed overview of Intermediate Sanctions. Identify at least two commonly known sanctions you believe should be utilized more frequently in sentencing and provide a rationale for your choices.

Answer & Explanation
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Provide a detailed overview of the four major components of the corrections system: Probation, Parole, Jail, Prison. Included should be the function and purpose of each and how each works within the system and with the other components.


The correctional system's goal is to assure that an offender's sentence, whether it's time in jail or custody, probation, or community service, is carried out. Retribution, punishment, incapacitation, and healing are the four aims of corrections, according to scholars. The following are the detailed overview of the four major components of the correction system.
 

  • Probation
    Probation and parole are quite similar, and many of the legal issues are the same. In many jurisdictions, the jobs of probation and parole officers are combined, and these officers are frequently employed in juvenile correctional departments. The most fundamental distinction between probation and parole is that probationers are subjected to community punishments rather than incarceration. Active supervision and inactive supervision are the most common distinctions made between probationer levels. Probationers on active supervision are recommended to monitor in with a probation officer on a regular basis, whereas those on inactive supervision have minor cases.
    Probation serves to protect the public interest and safety by reducing the frequency and impact of crime committed by probationers. Its advantages include lower government costs when an offender is released on probation rather than being imprisoned. In addition, the offender and his or her family are spared the humiliation and dishonor of incarceration.
  • Parole
    Parole is a type of incarceration for convicted criminals. Its goal is to help people reintegrate into society as productive members of society as soon as they are able, rather than incarcerating them for the full term of the charges brought by the courts. It also helps to reduce the societal costs of keeping someone in prison. Parole is defined as a release from prison prior to the completion of a sentence. The essence of parole is the discharge of a person from prison before the end of their sentence on the scenario that they follow certain rules for the remainder of their sentence. Parole is granted automatically in some systems after serving a certain portion of a prison sentence.
    Those who are permitted to leave prison early are confined to specific conditions for the period of their parole in order to achieve the goal of parole. These parole situations impose restrictions on their activities that go far beyond those imposed on an individual. Typically, parolees are prohibited from using alcohol or other illicit substances, as well as having connections with certain types of undesirable people, and they are obliged to disclose to their parole officers on a regular basis and obtain permission before partaking in certain activities.
  • Jail
    One of the most important purposes of prisons is to house convicted offenders after they have been arrested. The arrestee must appear in front of a judge within a very short time period. When deciding bail, the judge will weigh the proceedings against the defendant as well as the possibility of escaping. The arrestees may be expected to pay a charge or be released on their own recognizance in order to guarantee their presence in court.
    Jails are a form of judicial sanction that requires prisoners to be kept responsible for their conduct. Offenders who have been sentenced to a prison term for misdemeanor offences, usually for less than a year, are held in prisons. In certain cases, recovery and reintegration are seen as secondary objectives of incarceration. Many local prisons make an attempt to provide jobs for prisoners.
  • Prison
    The main distinction between a jail and a prison is the amount of time prisoners are held there. Jails are usually designed to house prisoners awaiting trial or serving a brief term, while prisons are usually run by either a national government or the Federal Bureau of Prisons. Retribution, incapacitation, deterrence, and recovery are the four key aims of prisons. It provides prisoners with various services based on their level of custody and is ideally suited to meet the needs of their populations. If there are protests, escapes, jail mismanagement, or violence against inmates, the prison staff is kept accountable.

REFERENCE(S):
https://courses.lumenlearning.com/atd-bmcc-criminaljustice/chapter/section-6-4-parole-probation-and-community-sanctions/
https://probation.gov.ph/probation-2/
https://www.appa-net.org/eweb/Dynamicpage.aspx?&webcode=IB_PositionStatement&wps_key=dc223702-d690-4830-9295-335366a65d3e
https://courses.lumenlearning.com/atd-bmcc-criminaljustice/chapter/section-6-1-jails/
http://www.stoptheaca.org/purpose.html

 

 

 

Discuss and describe (in detail) the three basic functions of an adult probation officer: caseload, supervision, & PSI reports. Which of the three is most important in your viewpoint and why?
 

To determine the degree of the defendant's criminal liability, the probation officer reviews the defendant's record, including private, financial, and crime history, assesses the defendant's current crime, including incidents leading up to the offences and other mitigating factors. The following are the three basic functions of an adult probation officer.
 

  • Caseload
    According to DOC figures, probation officers in "ordinary" cases monitor 31,116 individuals, with an average caseload of 84.78 cases per officer. Probation officers have been shown to have higher levels of stress than other occupations, which can lead to burnout, mental fatigue, and other issues. The caseloads are handled by probation officers. Following the completion of comprehensive evaluations, probation officers can make referrals to partner agencies and community services. Requests for accommodation, jobs, job training, and education are common examples. Based on the evaluation and knowledge collected, they establish and record case management techniques.
  • Supervision
    Intervening or which monitoring standards in order to help their clients comply with their probation conditions are among the major responsibilities and obligations of parole officers. During the intake process, they use risk assessments to plan how to discuss, execute, and change a case plan for their members. Face-to-face meetings are often held in their clients' homes or other community-based environments. They begin after the court proceedings are concluded.
    They have a face-to-face discussion with the violent offender and their family members after the court hearings to review the court order, answer questions, and create revised guidelines and procedures. They must obtain firsthand awareness about where their clients live, work, and spend their time in order to act with elusive individuals.
  • PSI report
    A Pre-Sentence Investigation (PSI) is ordered by the judge in all criminal cases following an arrest or plea. The PSI report would include a person's criminal background as well as the present severity level of their charges. In convicted criminal cases, the pre-sentence investigation (PSI) report is a document written by probation officers and is used by courts for sentencing purposes. It exposes circumstances that may affect the severity of the sentence. As the number of caseload increases, the same as with the number of PSI report, a probation officer has to write.

 

From a personal viewpoint, I can say that supervision is most important among the three since it assists offenders in making the required changes in order to influence probationers to refrain from the illegal activity that brought them to the attention of the court. Also, probation officers play an important role in assisting offenders in identifying the root causes of their crimes, encouraging them to make substantive improvements, and implementing strategies to prevent repeating the same pattern of actions. They're still in charge of making sure they're doing their part and upholding the terms of the recognizance, which will help them change their practices.

 

REFERENCE(S):
https://www.corrections1.com/probation-and-parole/articles/bill-would-limit-probation-officers-caseloads-8qrRLLeOpMZhSO4C/
https://crimeandjusticeresearchalliance.org/rsrch/probation-officer-stress-in-the-workplace/
https://www.socialworkdegreeguide.com/lists/5-duties-of-a-probation-officer/
https://www.douglascountyks.org/depts/court-services/faq/im-scheduled-psi-appointment-what
https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/9781118845387.wbeoc111

 

 

 

Explain, in detail, what is meant by "diversion programs" and provide some examples. What are the major goals of these types of programs? What is your personal viewpoint on these types of sentencing options - for what type of offenses should they be used?

 

  • Explain, in detail, what is meant by "diversion programs" and provide some examples. 
    Diversion is a community monitoring service administered by a probation office. Offenders are urged to take responsibility for their actions and to fix the mess they've caused, and victims are encouraged to engage fully in the process. Giving an apology to the victim, doing volunteer work, and engaging in therapy services are some of the choices included in a diversion program. The informal and structured diversion programs are the two primary forms of diversion programs. The least invasive programs are informal or alert or alarm programs, which aim to divert teenagers out of the system with little to no further intervention.  Formal diversion services are typically implemented after an arrest and contain both a justice and a service aspect. Teen/youth courts, behavioral health courts, rehabilitative interventions, truancy repression/intervention services, and mentoring programs are all examples of diversion programs.
  • What are the major goals of these types of programs?
    Some of the major goals of diversion services include reducing premature participation in the juvenile justice system's "deep end," reducing out-of-home placements, particularly for younger children, preserving youth connections and engagement in the community by holding the youth in his or her setting, and saving money over court processing and/or secure position.
  • What is your personal viewpoint on these types of sentencing options - for what type of offenses should they be used?
    From a personal viewpoint, diversion programs would be helpful to steer juvenile offenders away from the criminal justice system through counseling, supervision, and assistance. These sentencing options can contribute a lot in diverting youth with minor offences away from the system and into community-based care and support solutions is a more appropriate and efficient method of addressing and avoiding potential delinquency than incarceration. Also, diversion services are a perfect alternative than formally processing youth into the criminal justice system, which does more harm than good by reinforcing irresponsibility by "labeling" and introducing youth to conditions within juvenile and adult correctional facilities that could potentially increase antisocial behavior.

REFERENCE(S):
https://wiki.clicklaw.bc.ca/index.php?title=I%27ve_Been_Accused_of_a_Criminal_Offence_and_Have_Been_Offered_%22Diversion%22,_%22Restorative_Justice%22_or_%22Alternative_Measures%22
https://ojjdp.ojp.gov/sites/g/files/xyckuh176/files/mpg-iguides/topics/diversion-programs/index.html
https://youth.gov/youth-topics/juvenile-justice/diversion-programs

 

 

 

Tomorrow you will appear before the judge. Are you hoping for an indeterminate sentence of 10 years incarceration and 5 years parole, or a determinate sentence of 12 years? Why, specifically did you choose that option? Compare and contrast the two types of sentencing models. 


To answer the question, let us first define what is a indeterminate and determinate sentence.

 

  • Indeterminate Sentence - A sentence that spans a number of years is known as an indeterminate sentence. There is always a minimum period with an indeterminate sentence, which may be reduced by credits, but the release date, if any, is unknown. A parole board will decide whether the case is reviewed on a regular basis. Hearings are held by the state presiding judge to determine when a person accused will be eligible for release.
  • Determinate Sentence - A determinate punishment is one that has a fixed length and cannot be modified by a parole board or other entity. A   six-month sentence in the county jail, for example, is determinative because the prisoner will spend that time behind bars minus any time off for positive conduct, task, or other options to in-custody time, if applies.

Based on personal opinion, if I were to appear before a judge, I will be choosing to appeal for determinate sentence of 12 years than a 10 years incarceration and 5 years parole. Choosing between the two is quite hard as both requires serious decision and thinking and are both subjected to their disadvantages and benefits. The reason for choosing the latter option is because though determinate sentencing has a defined or determined period that cannot be reduced by a parole board to less than six-sevenths of the original length of service, the biggest issue with indeterminate sentencing is that it gives a parole board exclusive discretion in deciding the duration of a prisoner's sentence. The fear is that prisoners will be exposed to unfair treatment by the prison guards. What's more worrying regarding indeterminate sentences is the risk that a prisoner may be punished unfairly by parole board members with no appeal. 


REFERENCE(S):
https://www.criminaldefenselawyer.com/determinate-sentences.cfm
https://www.legalmatch.com/law-library/article/indeterminate-sentencing-laws.html

 

 

 

Provide a detailed overview of Intermediate Sanctions. Identify at least two commonly known sanctions you believe should be utilized more frequently in sentencing and provide a rationale for your choices.


Intermediate penalties are a form of punishment that is less severe than a traditional jail or prison punishment but more severe than probation or parole. Intensive surveillance, electronic surveillance, and field training are the most familiar form sanctions. Intermediate sanctions are in the center of all forms of fines which may be used instead. Intermediate penalties are structured to allow judges more leeway when deciding on sentences. The goal of intermediate sanctions is to minimize prison overcrowding by encouraging more inmates to engage in services aimed at rehabilitating them while still living in society. Intermediate penalties also assist in the prevention of recidivism, or persistent criminal conduct.
 

In my own opinion, the two sanctions that I believed should be utilized and used more frequently in sentencing are the boot camps and community service. Boot camps are a form of intermediate sanction program that takes place in a residential environment.  Boot camps, which are usually used for juvenile offenders, provide highly structured and military-like practices focused on discipline, physical work, and education. On the other hand, a community service program allows an inmate to perform work for a fixed period of time at a private not-for-profit agency, such as a domestic abuse shelter, or a government building, such as a courtroom.
The reason for choosing the two is that it gives the offenders a chance, though limited, to be social even with other offenders while doing good works at the same time. In my belief, doing active works and activities will help them recover faster and change their negative behaviors and attitude which can influence them not to repeat their mistakes again. Also, these activities can help maintain a healthy body than staying at home or in a confined space.

 

REFERENCE(S):
https://study.com/academy/lesson/intermediate-sanctions-definition-types-pros-cons.html
https://untpress.unt.edu/sites/default/files/excerpt/press182.pdf
 

Step-by-step explanation

Good day! In the answers above, I used bullet formatting for the answers for better understanding. Also, for some terms asked in some questions, I first included a brief definition which I think can help in answering the questions. For reference, I put the reference links at the last part of each question in case of need. You can also notice that I highlighted some parts and underlined some sentences which are the main idea of the answer. Also, for the questions asking for personal opinions, I did my best to answer them based on personal perspective while still considering the important facts. Hope it helps!