Functions of Managers

  • Planning: Mapping out exactly how to achieve a particular goal.
  • Organizing: Set up team and resources to accomplish goals.
  • Staffing: Recruiting, selecting, training, and developing employees.
  • Leading: Motivating, communicating, guiding, and encouraging employees.
  • Controlling: Check results against goals and take any corrective actions necessary.

The Decision-Making Process

  1. Define the problem.

  2. Identify limiting factors.

  3. Develop potential alternatives.

  4. Analyze the alternatives.

  5. Select the best alternative.

  6. Implement the decision.

  7. Establish a control and evaluation system.

Five Approaches to Organizational Design

  1. Functional structure groups positions into work units based on similar activities, skills, expertise, and resources.

  2. Divisional structure groups departments according to organizational outputs — by product, customer, or geography.

  3. Matrix structure combines functional specialization with the focus of divisional structure. This structure uses permanent cross-functional teams to integrate functional expertise with a divisional focus.

  4. Team structure organizes separate functions into a group based on one overall objective

  5. Network struct

    relies on other organizations to perform critical functions on a contractual basis.

Types of Teams

  • Functional teams perform specific organizational functions and include members from several levels of the hierarchy.
  • Cross-functional teams are made up of experts in various specialties (or functions) working together on various organizational tasks.
  • Self-directed work teams, or self-managed teams, operate without managers and are responsible for complete work processes or segments that deliver products or services to external or internal customers.

Total Quality Management (TQM) Principles

  • Produce quality work the first time.
  • Focus on the customer.
  • Have a strategic approach to improvement
  • Improve continuously.
  • Encourage mutual respect and teamwork.
Federal Laws Affecting Human Resource Practices
Law Date Description
National Labor Relations Act 1935 Requires employers to recognize a union chosen by the majority of the employees and to establish procedures governing collective bargaining.
Equal Pay Act 1963 Prohibits pay differences based on sex for equal work.
Civil Rights Act of 1964 1964 Prohibits discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, national origin, or sex.
Age Discrimination in Employment Act 1967, amended in 1978 and 1986 Prohibits age discrimination against employees between 40 and 65 years of age and restricts mandatory retirement.
Pregnancy Discrimination Act 1978 Prohibits discrimination or dismissal of women because of pregnancy alone and protects job security during maternity leaves.
Occupational Safety and Health Act 1970 Establishes mandatory safety and health standards in organizations.
Vocational Rehabilitation Act 1973 Prohibits discrimination on the basis of physical or mental disabilities and requires that employees be informed about affirmative action plans.
Vietnam-Era Veteran's Readjustment Assistance Act 1974 Prohibits discrimination against disabled veteran's and Vietnam-era veterans.
Mandatory Retirement Act 1978 Prohibits the forced retirement of most employees before the age of 70.
Immigration Reform and Control Act 1986 Prohibits employers from knowingly hiring illegal aliens and prohibits employment on the basis of national origin of citizenship.
Worker Adjustment and Retraining Notification Act 1988 Requires employees to provide 60 days' notice before a facility closing or mass layoff.
Employee Polygraph Protection Act 1988 Limits an employer's ability to use lie detector tests.
American with Disabilities Act 1990 Prohibits employers from discriminating against individuals with physical or mental disabilities or the chronically ill and requires that "reasonable accommodations" be provided for the disabled.
Civil Rights Act of 1991 1991 Reaffirms and tightens prohibition of discrimination. Permits individuals to sue for punitive damages in cases of intentional discrimination and shifts the burden of proof to the employer.
Family and Medical Leave Act 1993 Permits employees in organizations with 50 or more workers to take up to 12 weeks of unpaid leave for family or medical reasons for each year.

Pop Quiz!

What is the solution for the following system of equations?

4x + 3 y = 12

2x – 9 y = 4