|Federal Laws Affecting Human Resource Practices
|National Labor Relations Act
|Requires employers to recognize a union chosen by the majority of the employees and to establish procedures governing collective bargaining.
|Equal Pay Act
|Prohibits pay differences based on sex for equal work.
|Civil Rights Act of 1964
|Prohibits discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, national origin, or sex.
|Age Discrimination in Employment Act
|1967, amended in 1978 and 1986
|Prohibits age discrimination against employees between 40 and 65 years of age and restricts mandatory retirement.
|Pregnancy Discrimination Act
|Prohibits discrimination or dismissal of women because of pregnancy alone and protects job security during maternity leaves.
|Occupational Safety and Health Act
|Establishes mandatory safety and health standards in organizations.
|Vocational Rehabilitation Act
|Prohibits discrimination on the basis of physical or mental disabilities and requires that employees be informed about affirmative action plans.
|Vietnam-Era Veteran's Readjustment Assistance Act
|Prohibits discrimination against disabled veteran's and Vietnam-era veterans.
|Mandatory Retirement Act
|Prohibits the forced retirement of most employees before the age of 70.
|Immigration Reform and Control Act
|Prohibits employers from knowingly hiring illegal aliens and prohibits employment on the basis of national origin of citizenship.
|Worker Adjustment and Retraining Notification Act
|Requires employees to provide 60 days' notice before a facility closing or mass layoff.
|Employee Polygraph Protection Act
|Limits an employer's ability to use lie detector tests.
|American with Disabilities Act
|Prohibits employers from discriminating against individuals with physical or mental disabilities or the chronically ill and requires that "reasonable accommodations" be provided for the disabled.
|Civil Rights Act of 1991
|Reaffirms and tightens prohibition of discrimination. Permits individuals to sue for punitive damages in cases of intentional discrimination and shifts the burden of proof to the employer.
|Family and Medical Leave Act
|Permits employees in organizations with 50 or more workers to take up to 12 weeks of unpaid leave for family or medical reasons for each year.