After companies determine customer needs, they must concentrate on meeting those needs by yielding high quality products at an efficient rate. Companies can improve quality and productivity by securing the commitments of all three levels of management and employees as follows:
Top‐level management: Implement sound management practices, use research and development effectively, adopt modern manufacturing techniques, and improve time management.
Middle management: Plan and coordinate quality and productivity efforts.
Low‐level management: Work with employees to improve productivity through acceptance of change, commitment to quality, and continually improving all facets of their work.
Productivity is the relationship between a given amount of output and the amount of input needed to produce it. Profitability results when money is left over from sales after costs are paid. The expenditures made to ensure that the product or service meets quality specifications affect the final or overall cost of the products and/or services involved. Efficiency of costs will be an important consideration in all stages of the market system from manufacturing to consumption. Quality affects productivity. Both affect profitability. The drive for any one of the three must not interfere with the drive for the others. Efforts at improvement need to be coordinated and integrated. The real cost of quality is the cost of avoiding nonconformance and failure. Another cost is the cost of not having quality—of losing customers and wasting resources.
As long as companies continually interact with their customers and various partners, and develop learning relationships between all levels of management and employees, the levels of productivity and quality should remain high.