Physical methods for controlling the growth of microorganisms can be divided into heat methods and nonheat methods. The lowest temperature at which all microorganisms are killed in 10 minutes is the thermal death point, while the minimum amount of time required to kill microorganisms at a given temperature is known as the thermal death time. The time for destruction of 90 percent of the microbial population is the decimal reduction time. Dry heat. Dry heat kills microorganisms by reacting with and oxidizing their proteins. Dry heat can be used in incineration devices, such as the Bunsen burner or the hot-air oven. In the hot-air oven, a temperature of about 170°C for two hours will bring about sterilization. Moist heat. Moist heat is used to kill microorganisms in such things as boiling water.Most vegetating microorganisms are killed within two or three minutes, but over two or three hours may be required for destruction of bacterial spores. In moist heat, the microbial proteins undergo denaturation, a process in which the three-dimensional form of the protein reverts to a two-dimensional form, and the protein breaks down. Moist heat is used in the autoclave, a high-pressure device in which steam is superheated (Figure 1 ). Steam at 100°C is placed under a pressure of 15 pounds per square inch, increasing the temperature to 121°C. At this temperature, the time required to achieve sterilization is about 15 minutes. The autoclave is the standard instrument for preparing microbial media and for sterilizing instruments such as syringes, hospital garb, blankets, intravenous solutions, and myriad other items. Figure 1 The autoclave, a pressurized steam generator used for sterilization processes. Although pasteurization is used to lower the bacterial content of milk and dairy products, it does not achieve sterilization. The conditions of pasteurization are set up to eliminate the tuberculosis bacillus and the rickettsia that causes Q fever. Milk is pasteurized for 30 minutes at about 62°C or for 15 to 17 seconds at about 72°C. The first method is known as the holding method, the second method as the flash method. Dairy products can be pasteurized at 82°C for three seconds, a process known as ultrapasteurization. An alternative heating method is tyndallization, also called intermittent sterilization.Liquids and other items are subjected to free-flowing steam for 30 minutes on each of three successive days. During the first day, all vegetating microorganisms, except spores, are killed. In the overnight period, the spores germinate, and they are killed by the steam on the second day. The last few remaining spores germinate on the second evening and are killed on the third day. Nonheat methods. A number of nonheat methods are also available to control the growth and presence of microorganisms. Among these is filtration, a process in which a liquid or gas passes through a series of pores small enough to retain microorganisms. A vacuum can be created to help pull the liquid or gas through the filter. A filter is often used when heat-sensitive materials such as vaccines are to be sterilized. Filter materials can be of various types. For example, certain filters consist ofdiatomaceous earth, the skeletal remains of diatoms. Membrane filters composed of nitrocellulose can also be used. The effectiveness of the filter depends upon the pore size, which can be established to trap the microorganisms desired. For instance, if bacteria are to be removed, the pore size would be about 0.15 μm, while if viruses are to be removed, the pores size should be about 0.01 μm. Drying can be used to control the growth of microorganisms because when water is removed from cells, they shrivel and die. To dry foods, they are mixed with salt or sugar. Either draws water out of microbial cells by osmosis, and they quickly die. One method for achieving drying is lyophilization, a process in which liquids are quick-frozen and then subjected to evacuation, which dries the material. Salted meat and sugared fruits are preserved this way. Cold temperatures are used in the refrigerator to control microbial growth. At low temperatures, microbial metabolism slows considerably, and the reproductive rate is reduced. However, cold temperatures do not necessarily kill microorganisms. At freezing temperatures, ice crystals kill many microorganisms present. Radiations are also used to control microorganisms when food or other materials are subjected to gamma rays or X rays. The radiations change the chemical composition of microorganisms by forming ions in the organic materials of the cytoplasm. Highly reactive toxic radicals also form. Nonionizing radiations are typified by ultraviolet light. Ultraviolet light affects the nucleic acids of microorganisms, inducing adjacent thymine residues in DNA molecules to bind to one another forming dimers. This binding changes the character of the DNA, making it unable to function in protein synthesis. Cell death soon follows. Although microwaves are a form of radiation, their direct effect on microorganisms is minimal. Microwaves induce water molecules to vibrate at high rates, creating heat. The heat is the killing agent rather than the microwaves.