Nervous tissue consists of two kinds of nerve cells: Neurons are the basic structural unit of the nervous system. Each cell consists of the following parts (see Figure 1): The cell body contains the nucleus and other cellular organelles. The dendrites are typically short, slender extensions of the cell body that receive stimuli. The axon is typically a long, slender extension of the cell body that sends stimuli. The axon branches are, typically, smaller extensions of the axon. Neuroglia, or glial cells, provide support functions for the neurons, such as insulation or anchoring neurons to blood vessels. Figure 1. A neuron is a basic structural unit of the nervous system containing a cell body, dendrites, and an axon.