Simplifying Rational Expressions
To simplify a rational expression:

Completely factor numerators and denominators.

Reduce common factors.
Example 1
Simplify .
Example 2
Simplify .
Whenever possible, try to write all polynomials in descending order with a positive leading coefficient. To have a positive leading coefficient, occasionally –1 has to be factored out of the polynomial.
Example 3
Simplify .
Example 4
Simplify .
This answer can be expressed in other ways.