Timeline

1632 English philosopher John Locke born (died 1704)

1690 Locke's Essay Concerning Human Understanding published

1724 German philosopher Immanuel Kant born (died 1804)

1770 British Romantic poet William Wordsworth born (died 1850)

1772 British Romantic poet Samuel Taylor Coleridge born (died 1834)

French socialist reformer Charles Fourier born (died 1837)

1779 Romantic artist Washington Allston born (died 1843)

1780 Minister William Ellery Channing born (died 1842)

1781 Kant's Critique of Pure Reason published

1783 Author Washington Irving born (died 1859)

1788 Kant's Critique of Practical Reason published

1789 Novelist James Fenimore Cooper born (died 1851)

1794 Poet William Cullen Bryant born (died 1878)

1795 British Romantic author Thomas Carlyle born (died 1881)

Unitarian minister Convers Francis born (died 1863)

1798 Lyrical Ballads by Wordsworth and Coleridge published

1799 Amos Bronson Alcott born (died 1888)

1801 Reverend Joseph Stevens Buckminster traveled to Europe; returned home with books purchased abroad

1802 Unitarian minister and author William Henry Furness born (died 1896)

Unitarian minister, editor, and Brook Farm founder George Ripley born (died 1880)

1803 Louisiana Purchase

Ralph Waldo Emerson born (died 1882)

Minister, editor, and essayist Orestes Brownson born (died 1876)

1804 Lewis and Clark began exploration of Northwest from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean (continued until 1806)

Harmony Society came to America under direction of George Rapp; established first in Pennsylvania, then in Indiana.

Author Nathaniel Hawthorne born (died 1864

Transcendental activist and writer Elizabeth Palmer Peabody born (died 1894)

1805 Unitarian minister, author, editor, and professor Frederic Henry Hedge born (died 1890)

1806 Zebulon Pike traveled through Southwest, to New Mexico and Mexico City.

Author William Gilmore Simms born (died 1870)

Author Nathaniel Parker Willis born (died 1867)

1807 Robert Fulton's steamboat Clermont made trial run from Albany to New York.

Poet Henry Wadsworth Longfellow born (died 1882)

Poet John Greenleaf Whittier born (died 1892)

1809 Poet, critic, and writer of short stories Edgar Allan Poe born (died 1849)

1810 Unitarian minister and editor William Henry Channing born (died 1884)

Unitarian minister and abolitionist Theodore Parker born (died 1860

Feminist, author, lecturer, and editor (Sarah) Margaret Fuller born (died 1850)

Unitarian minister, author, and editor James Freeman Clarke born (died 1888)

1813 Madame de Stäel's De L'Allemagne translated into English under title Germany

The Christian Examiner established

Poet and Harvard Greek tutor Jones Very born (died 1880)

Unitarian minister, editor, poet, and artist Christopher Pearse Cranch born (died 1892)

1814 Mill owner Francis Cabot Lowell introduced power loom into American textile industry at Boston Manufacturing Company, Waltham, Massachusetts

Edition of Madame de Stäel's De L'Allemagne published in New York

1815 George Ticknor and Edward Everett went to Europe to study

1817 Work began on Erie Canal

Edward Everett first American to receive Ph.D. at University of Göttingen in Germany

Coleridge's Biographia Literaria published

Henry David Thoreau born (died 1862)

1819 Missouri requested admission to Union as slave state

William Ellery Channing delivered "Unitarian Christianity" sermon

Poet Walt Whitman born (died 1892)

Author Herman Melville born (died 1891)

1820 Missouri Compromise

William Ellery Channing organized Berry Street Conference

1821 First American settlement in Texas

The Christian Register established

1823 Monroe Doctrine

The Pioneers, the first of Cooper's Leatherstocking Series, published (series continued until 1841)

Charles Ingersoll delivered "Discourse Concerning the Influence of America on the Mind"

1824 Weavers in Pawtucket, Rhode Island, went on strike over decreasing wages and increasing hours

Harmony Society reestablished in Pennsylvania in the community named Economy

1825 Erie Canal opened

American Unitarian Association established

Equal rights lecturer Frances Wright moved from England to America

Robert Owen founded New Harmony (first secular utopian community in America) in Indiana

Coleridge's Aids to Reflection published

1826 Jedediah Strong Smith led expedition to Mexican-held California

First lyceum in America established at Millbury, Massachusetts

1828 Democrat Andrew Jackson first elected to presidency

Travel by railroad began

Strike of textile workers in Paterson, New Jersey, quelled by militia

Sarah Josepha Hale became editor of the Ladies' Magazine

Webster's American Dictionary of the English Language first published

Concord Lyceum formed

1829 Publication of Encyclopedia Americana began (continued until 1833)

James Marsh's edition of Coleridge's Aids to Reflection, including "Preliminary Essay" on German philosophy, published

1830 Mexico passed restrictive immigration laws

William Ellery Channing's Remarks on American Literature published

Charles Follen made professor of German literature at Harvard

1831 William Lloyd Garrison established The Liberator in Boston

Term Underground Railroad first used

1832 Democrat Andrew Jackson reelected to presidency

New England Anti-Slavery Society founded in Boston

American Anti-Slavery Society established in Philadelphia

First clipper ship built in Baltimore

Horsecar introduced in New York

Emerson rejected practice of Lord's Supper and left pastorate

Emerson's first trip abroad (returned 1833)

1834 Andrew Jackson's political opposition formed Whig Party

Emerson moved to Concord

Bronson Alcott established Temple School in Boston (continued until 1838)

James Walker's "The Philosophy of Man's Spiritual Nature in Regard to the Foundation of Faith" published in The Christian Examiner

1835 Treaty of Echota

Samuel F.B. Morse developed telegraph (patented 1840)

Dr. Channing's Slavery published

The Western Messenger established

Emerson bought home on Cambridge Turnpike in Concord

1836 Democrat Martin Van Buren elected to presidency

Texas declared its independence from Mexico; Alamo captured by Mexican leader Santa Anna; Texas won its independence at Battle of San Jacinto

Carlyle's Sartor Resartus published

McGuffey's Eclectic Readers began to appear

Emerson's Nature published

Transcendental Club formed

1837 Antislavery publisher Elijah Lovejoy killed by rioters in Alton, Illinois

First Massachusetts Board of Education formed

Emerson delivered "The American Scholar"

Emerson delivered first antislavery address in Concord

Carlyle's The French Revolution published

Hawthorne's Twice-Told Tales published

Sarah Josepha Hale became editor of Godey's Lady's Book

P.T. Barnum's freak show debuted

1838 Forcible removal of Cherokees from Georgia and Tennessee to Oklahoma

Transatlantic steamship service began

Emerson delivered "Divinity School Address"

Publication of George Ripley's 14-volume Specimens of Foreign Standard Literature began (continued until 1842)

Boston Quarterly Review established

1839 Slave mutiny on ship Amistad

Andrews Norton attacked Transcendentalism in Discourse on the Latest Form of Infidelity

1840 Democratic/Whig presidential campaign featured slogans, buttons, mudslinging

Whig William Henry Harrison elected to presidency

Publication of Transcendental periodical The Dial began (continued until 1844)

Elizabeth Palmer Peabody opened Foreign Library in Boston (where Margaret Fuller held "Conversations" and Brook Farm was planned)

1841 Vice President John Tyler succeeded President Harrison, who died shortly after taking office

John C. Frémont expedition to track headwaters of Des Moines River

Carlyle's On Heroes and Hero-Worship published

Emerson's Essays [First Series] published

Cooper's The Deerslayer (the final novel in his Leatherstocking Series, begun in 1823) published

Theodore Parker delivered "Discourse of the Transient and Permanent in Christianity" sermon (also called "South Boston Sermon")

George Ripley established Brook Farm (continued until 1847)

1842 Frémont expedition to explore route to Oregon

Massachusetts Supreme Court upheld legality of labor unions and right to strike

Massachusetts passed legislation to limit working hours of children

Lowell Offering began publication

Hawthorne moved to Old Manse in Concord (remained until 1845)

P.T. Barnum opened American Museum

1843 Second Frémont expedition to explore route to Oregon

North American Phalanx, first Fourierist community in America, established in Red Bank, New Jersey

Bronson Alcott and Charles Lane established Fruitlands

1844 Democrat James K. Polk elected to presidency

Constitution of Brook Farm revised; community became Fourierist

Emerson's Essays: Second Series published

Emerson delivered address in Concord on anniversary of emancipation in British West Indies

Fitchburg Railroad opened in Concord

1845 Term Manifest Destiny first used in anonymous piece in July–August issue of The United States Magazine and Democratic Review, probably by John L. O'Sullivan

Texas annexed by United States

Frémont expedition to explore area around Great Salt Lake in Utah

George Henry Evans founded National Reform Association for benefit of labor

Brook Farm periodical The Harbinger began publication

Margaret Fuller's Woman in the Nineteenth Century published

Thoreau built and moved into cabin at Walden Pond in Concord (remained until 1847)

1846 War with Mexico declared

Mormon migration from Illinois to Utah began

Smithsonian Institution founded in Washington, D.C.

Hawthorne's Mosses from an Old Manse published

Thoreau jailed for refusal to pay poll tax in protest against slavery

1847 Massachusetts Quarterly Review founded

Emerson's first volume of poetry, Poems, published

Longfellow's Evangeline published

1848 Whig Zachary Taylor elected to presidency

Mexican War ended; Mexico surrendered much territory to United States

Gold rush began

Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton organized first Seneca Falls women's convention

New York State granted property rights for women commensurate to those for men

Boston Female Medical School (first medical school for women in America) opened

Industrial utopian community founded at Oneida, New York

1849 Amelia Bloomer's The Lily began

Elizabeth Palmer Peabody published Aesthetic Papers, including Thoreau's "Resistance to Civil Government" (later known as Civil Disobedience)

Thoreau's A Week on the Concord and Merrimack Rivers published

1850 Vice President Millard Fillmore succeeded President Taylor, who died in office

Compromise of 1850, including Fugitive Slave Law, passed

National women's convention held in Worcester, Massachusetts

Hawthorne's The Scarlet Letter published

Emerson's Representative Men published

Harper's Monthly Magazine began publication

1851 Henry Rowe Schoolcraft's six-volume work on Native American history and culture began publication (completed 1857)

Melville's Moby-Dick published

Hawthorne's The House of the Seven Gables and The Snow-Image published

Fugitive slave Shadrach Minkins spent night in Concord en route to Canada via Underground Railroad

Fugitive slave Thomas Sims was returned to master in Georgia

1852 Democrat Franklin Pierce elected to presidency

Harriet Beecher Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin published

Hawthorne's Blithedale Romance published

1853 Crystal Palace Exhibition held in New York City

Feminist periodical Una began publication

1854 Thoreau's Walden published

North American Review began publication (later bought by Ticknor and Fields)

Thoreau delivered "Slavery in Massachusetts" address in response to fugitive slave case of Anthony Burns

1855 John Brown moved to Kansas

Longfellow's The Song of Hiawatha published

Whitman's Leaves of Grass published

1856 Democrat James Buchanan elected to presidency

Emerson's English Traits published

1857 Dred Scott case

Kansas elected free state legislature

Frederick Law Olmsted designed New York's Central Park

Atlantic Monthly began publication (later bought by Ticknor and Fields)

Harper's Weekly began publication

1859 John Brown led raid on federal arsenal at Harper's Ferry, West Virginia

Thoreau delivered "A Plea for Captain John Brown"

Bronson Alcott became Superintendent of Schools in Concord (continued until 1865)

Pullman (sleeper) car introduced

1860 Republican Abraham Lincoln elected to presidency

Strike by Massachusetts shoemakers

Elizabeth Palmer Peabody established first American kindergarten in Boston

Hawthorne's The Marble Faun published

Emerson's The Conduct of Life published

1861 Kansas admitted to Union

Civil War began

1862 Henry David Thoreau died

1863 President Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation

1865 Civil War ended

President Lincoln assassinated

1866 First successful transatlantic cable laid

1867 Emerson's second volume of poems, May-Day, published

1870 Emerson's Society and Solitude published

1875 Emerson's Letters and Social Aims published

1879 Bronson Alcott established Concord School of Philosophy

1882 Ralph Waldo Emerson died

Pop Quiz!

According to Emerson's "The Divinity School Address," the "sentiment of virtue" is described as what?

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