Study Help Full Glossary for Gallic Wars


agger the earth rampart surrounding a camp; also the ramp built up to a town wall during a siege operation

alae an auxiliary cavalry regiment

arietes battering rams

auxila auxiliary infantry units attached to the legions

castella towers used to fortify the circumvallatio

circumvallatio field works surrounding a town under siege

cohors praetoria commander-in-chief's bodyguard, here the Tenth Legion

cuniculi mines

eruptiones sorties out of a camp or town

exploratores scouting patrols

fabri engineers

falces murales hooks used to break down walls

fossa ditch surrounding the camp, outside the agger

imperator commander-in-chief; here it is Caesar

legati staff of officers of senatorial rank; in Caesar's army they command legions. Labienus is an outstanding example.

orbis circle formation of troops, several ranks deep

ordines the officers (centurions) in charge of the groups of one hundred men

pila javelin

praefecti officers in charge of cavalry and auxiliary infantry

praefectus fabricum chief engineer

primipilus chief centurion

quaestor second in command, acts in various capacities, such as chief-of-staff or quartermaster general. Marcus Crassus is an excellent example.

scalae ladders used to climb town walls before them, the others hold their shields over their heads

speculatores individual scouts

testudo the "tortoise" formation; in this formation the men in front hold their shields

torments artillery

trihuni militum usually commanders of cohorts

turres ambulatoriae wheeled towers moved along the assault agger

vallum palisade atop agger

vineae sheds to protect workers on siege apparatus