American Government Glossary

absentee ballot used to allow people to vote when they are traveling or living away from their normal residence.

affirmative action policies that favor members of a protected group; used to equalize conditions in society.

American Independent party political party whose most famous presidential candidate was Alabama governor George Wallace; mainly known for opposing racial desegregation.

American Indian Movement (AIM) interest group that helps Native American tribes press land claims.

American party anti-immigration party dominant in the 1850s. Also called the Know-Nothing party.

Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA) applied portions of the 1964 Civil Rights Act to the handicapped, resulting in lawsuits and institutional expenditures to increase access for the disabled.

amicus curiae brief written arguments in which a "friend of the court" states its position on a case.

Annapolis Convention gathering of representatives from five U.S. states that first formally discussed strengthening the U.S. Confederation dramatically; met in 1786 and led the way to the U.S. Constitution.

Antifederalists leaders in the debate over ratification who opposed the Federalists; often wanted to protect the power of state governments and therefore opposed the proposed Constitution.

Articles of Confederation created as a charter for the United States and in effect 1781-1787; essentially a loose alliance of sovereign states. Replaced by the Constitution.

bicameral a legislature with two chambers.

bipartisan issues that unite people in both major parties.

black codes restrictions placed upon African-American freemen in the aftermath of their emancipation.

Black Muslims radical African-American religious group advocating some racial separation and threatening violence to white society.

Black Panther party militant African-American organization willing to use violence to increase "black power."

block grant general federal grants for whole areas of public policy; gives the recipient flexibility.

broadcast media journalistic outlets that communicate using the airwaves (radio, television).

Bull-Moose party short-lived political party that served as a vehicle for Teddy Roosevelt's 1912 campaign for president.

bureaucrats employees of government agencies.

cabinet a collection of federal department heads that reports directly to the president.

cabinet departments administrative units in the federal bureaucracy with responsibility for broad areas of government operation.

capital gains tax tax on the income made from sales of real estate or stock.

categorical grant federal funds available to states and localities earmarked for a specific purpose.

caucus state gathering of political party members to select candidates for office.

Central Intelligence Agency collects and analyzes information relevant to the national security of the U.S.

checks and balances system in which each branch of government has the ability to limit powers possessed by other branches.

chief clerk model approach to the presidency in which the executive branch is merely an administrative arm of Congress.

chief of staff the president's main legislative liaison and staff organizer.

circuit the geographical area covered by a federal court of appeal.

civil cases court cases in which the plaintiff tries to recover damages for something done to them by the defendant, as opposed to criminal cases.

civil disobedience when activists break a law that they consider unjust as a public challenge to the law.

civil liberties individual freedoms on which the government may not infringe.

Civil Rights Act of 1964 expansive federal law that prevented racial discrimination by any private business receiving federal money or engaging in commerce with an interstate component.

Civil Rights Act of 1968 banned discrimination in housing.

civil rights treatment guaranteed to individuals by the government; necessary if everyone is to be equal before the law.

civil service civilian employees of the federal government who do not lose their jobs when political control of the government changes. Also called "civil servants."

class-action suits when a group of people joins litigation against a single defendant for damages imposed on members of the group.

clear and present danger standard used to judge speech restrictions that are allowed only when an exercise of free speech would directly threaten public safety.

closed primary primary election in which only a party's registered voters may help select a party's candidate in the general election.

cloture a vote of 60 or more Senators, required to end a filibuster.

coattails effect the ability of a presidential candidate to pull members of the same party into Congress.

COLAs cost of living adjustments guaranteeing that government benefits increase with the inflation rate; generally in place for program to help the elderly but not those to help families, children, or students.

commerce clause Constitutional provision giving Congress authority to regulate interstate commerce.

community standard when the definition of obscenity shifts depending on the values of a locale.

compensatory damages direct payback sought to recover from damages caused by a defendant.

Compromise of 1850 second great compromise between Northern and Southern states over the slavery issue; resulted in the admission of California as a free state and a fugitive slave law protecting the South.

concurring opinion opinion written by a court minority that accepts the judgment but for alternative reasoning.

confederation system of government in which decentralized units, such as states, are clearly dominant.

conference committees legislative committees that reconcile the discrepancies in versions of a bill passed by each chamber.

confirmation when the Senate approves a presidential appointee.

Congressional Budget Office (CBO) office of budgetary experts that provides Congress with estimates of how much money programs will cost and taxes will provide.

congressional campaign committee organization responsible for helping their party retain seats in, and gain new seats to, a particular chamber of Congress.

Connecticut Compromise settled the Constitutional Convention's debate over representation; featured a bicameral legislature, with a Senate favoring small states and a House of Representatives favoring large states. Also called the Great Compromise.

constituents the voters that any particular elected official represents.

constitutional interpretation when a court must interpret the meaning of laws written into a constitution.

containment policy American policy to resist the spread of communism through counterforce.

cooperative federalism federal system in which different levels of government divide responsibility for public policy areas.

Copperheads Northern Democrats who opposed the nation's Civil War.

cost-benefit analysis when decision-makers weigh the costs and benefits of a public policy to decide whether it should be continued or changed.

covert operations secret foreign policy actions intended to promote American interests abroad; can include assassination, the overthrow of foreign governments, and tampering with elections.

cozy triangle a small group of people controlling a particular policy area; includes select members of congressional committees, administrative agencies, and lobbying groups. Also called an iron triangle.

criminal cases court cases in which someone is accused of damaging society through their unlawful acts, as opposed to civil cases.

de facto segregation racial separation that comes about as a result of private social practices.

de jure segregation racial separation enforced by law.

defendant person charged with a crime.

delegated powers specific list of Congressional powers included in Article I of the Constitution; system in which a constitution lists what a limited government is allowed to do.

delegates people at a national party convention with the power to help select candidates for office; representatives who see their job as giving the majority what it wants.

deregulation movement to reduce the quantity of rules imposed on industries by the federal government.

desegregation the removal of laws that keep two ethnic groups apart.

détente American policy in the 1970s to ease tensions with the Soviet Union.

direct mail mailings by candidates or interest groups targeted at individuals likely to give them money or to join their campaign.

dissenting opinion opinion written by a court minority that rejects both the court's decision and its reasoning.

divided government when different political parties control different branches of government.

docket the Supreme Court's agenda of which cases it will hear.

domino theory the belief that allowing a single country to become Communist would result in many more countries in the region to do the same.

double jeopardy when a person is tried twice for the same crime; forbidden by the Fifth Amendment.

dual federalism federal system in which national powers and state powers are sharply differentiated.

due process violations of due process are forbidden by the Fifth Amendment; however, judges disagree over whether this is merely a procedural guarantee or whether it actually rules out specific governmental actions (that is, substantive due process).

elastic clause Constitutional provision giving Congress the right to make all laws "necessary and proper" to put its powers into effect. Used to justify wide expansion of government authority. Also called necessary and proper clause.

Electoral College indirect system for electing the U.S. President. Means that the winning candidate may not have received a majority of votes nationwide.

eminent domain Fifth Amendment requirement that government compensates owners appropriately when taking private property for public use.

entitlements benefits promised by law to individuals or families meeting certain requirements.

enumerated powers specific list of Congressional powers included in Article I of the Constitution; system in which a constitution lists what a limited government is allowed to do.

Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) proposed constitutional amendment that promised women equal rights; narrowly missed ratification; amendments to the Civil Rights Act have probably produced the same effect its ratification would have had.

equal time rule requires that radio and television stations allow candidates for political office equal access to airtime.

equality of opportunity when everyone is given the same chances to succeed by public policy but the law does not guarantee that everyone will be equal.

equality of outcome when a law is less concerned with fair or equal treatment and is more concerned with minimizing differences between groups or people at the end of the process.

exclusionary rule courtroom ban on evidence obtained improperly.

executive agreements presidential promises to other nations that do not require Senate approval; not binding on future administrations.

exit polls polls taken during an election as voters leave the polling place; used to determine likely election results quickly.

fairness doctrine policy that required broadcasters to present all points of view on important public issues; abolished in 1987.

Federal Communications Commission government agency responsible for regulating the public airwaves.

Federal Election Campaign Act passed in 1971 and subsequently amended, this law limited how much money individuals and organizations could give to candidates for national office.

Federal Election Commission created in 1974, this agency monitors national elections and provides matching funds to qualifying candidates.

Federal Reserve system the national government's banking system used to implement monetary policy.

federalism division of power between the national and state governments, with each one having responsibility over the tasks best performed at that level.

Federalists leaders in the debate over ratification who favored a strong national government and therefore supported the proposed Constitution.

The Federalist Papers series of newspaper articles published in New York state by Publius (the pseudonym used by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay). Provided numerous arguments in favor of the proposed U.S. Constitution.

fighting words words that most people would expect to produce violence if directed at a particular individual or group.

filibuster when Senators delay a bill by giving marathon speeches; only stopped with a cloture vote.

First Continental Congress gathering of colonial representatives in 1774 that sought a peaceful settlement with Great Britain.

fiscal policy when government tries to manipulate the economy using its tax-and-spend powers.

flat tax a single tax imposed equally on every American that would replace income taxes and eliminate the need for the Internal Revenue Service.

formula grant categorical grants awarded to states and municipalities in which the amount is determined by plugging statistics into a specific formula.

Fourteen Points President Woodrow Wilson's proposal for a peace settlement after World War I.

franchise the right to vote.

franking privilege free use of the mail provided to incumbent legislators so that they may keep in touch with their constituents.

free-rider problem the difficulty faced by interest groups when trying to attract members who will benefit from their activities even when they do not contribute.

gender gap an abiding difference noted between men and unmarried women in their partisanship and political ideologies.

gerrymandering the design of oddly shaped legislative districts to ensure victory by a particular party or ethnic group.

glasnost policy of "openness" introduced by Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev to ease tensions with the United States.

good faith exception relative permission rule used to determine which evidence may be used in a criminal trial, giving police more flexibility.

government corporations federal agencies that operate like private businesses to provide specific services.

Gramm-Rudman-Hollings bill unsuccessful law, passed in 1985, that was supposed to eliminate the federal government's large deficits.

grand jury method of determining whether the government should prosecute a criminal case; required in serious cases by the Fifth Amendment.

Great Compromise settled the Constitutional Convention's debate over representation; featured a bicameral legislature, with a Senate favoring small states and a House of Representatives favoring large states. Also called the Connecticut Compromise.

Great Society ambitious liberal vision pursued by President Lyndon Johnson in the 1960s.

Green party recent, European-style political party that supports strong environmental laws and increased avenues for public participation in government.

gross national product (GNP) a measure of the nation's overall economic productivity.

Hatch Act passed in 1939; prohibits federal workers from engaging in political activity.

ideological interest groups interest groups that evaluate multiple policy areas based upon a coherent political ideology.

International Monetary Fund (IMF) promotes currency stability and international trade.

impeachment bringing a public official up on formal charges. In the federal government, impeachment is the job of the House of Representatives.

implementation when the federal bureaucracy puts federal rules and regulations into practice.

incumbents candidates seeking to keep a position that they already hold.

independent agencies federal agencies outside the cabinet structure that are insulated from political interference.

inflation price increases that reduce the value of money and indirectly "tax" people with fixed incomes or property.

infomercial a long advertisement that digs into the details of a product or candidate.

initiative when voters decide policy after an issue is placed on the ballot by citizen petition.

integration active legal measures intended to bring two ethnic groups together.

Iron Curtain the string of Eastern European nations taken over by the Soviet Union after World War II to form a barrier against the European democracies.

iron triangle a small group of people controlling a particular policy area; includes select members of congressional committees, administrative agencies, and lobbying groups. Also called a cozy triangle.

isolationist term describing a passive foreign policy that does not permit getting involved in international disputes or other nations' internal affairs.

issue network more open than an iron triangle; the complex web of individuals who shape a policy area in the modern American political system.

Jim Crow Laws Southern statutes passed around the turn of the twentieth century setting up a rigid racial-caste system.

Joint Chiefs of Staff consists of a leader representing each branch of the armed services; provides the president with military advice.

joint committees legislative committees with members drawn from both chambers; responsible for investigating issues of general concern to the Congress.

judicial activism when judges aggressively apply their judicial review power to strike down laws, as a means of making policy conform to their own preferences.

judicial restraint when judges strike down laws only rarely, otherwise deferring to the policy choices of legislatures.

judicial review the power of a court to strike down laws as unconstitutional.

Know-Nothing party anti-immigration party dominant in the 1850s. Also called the American party.

Korean War early 1950s conflict in which the U.S. joined South Korea against Communist North Korea.

laissez-faire a belief that government should stay out of most areas in American life.

land-grant colleges agricultural and mechanical colleges created under the auspices of the Morrill Act.

leadership model approach to the presidency in which the executive branch is a competing political institution with Congress.

leaks unauthorized releases of information to the press, sometimes used strategically to influence policy.

Lemon test test derived from a 1971 Supreme Court ruling to determine whether a law constitutes an establishment of religion.

libel untrue statements harmful to a person's reputation that are communicated in print.

Libertarian party political party active since the 1960s that opposes government activity beyond police powers and the court system.

libertarianism also known as classical liberalism; an ideology favoring limited government in both economic and social spheres.

line-item veto when an executive may cut out specific spending provisions from a larger bill.

litmus tests when voters decide whom to support based upon their positions on one or two issues.

lobbyists paid professionals who try to influence legislation.

logrolling cooperative effort of multiple legislators to bind together a series of personal projects and push them through the legislative process.

loopholes specific tax provisions that allow individuals or corporations to get out of part of their tax burden by engaging in actions favored by the government.

majority floor leader second in command of the House of Representatives.

majority opinion opinion summarizing a court's judgment and reasoning when a court majority is in agreement.

mandate federal regulations to which states and municipalities must adhere. Also, when the vote in a particular election implicitly endorses the views espoused by a candidate ahead of time.

manifest destiny the belief that the U.S. was destined to spread across the North American continent to the Pacific Ocean.

margin of error the amount that a poll result will fluctuate if the method is used repeatedly.

Marshall Plan U.S. program after World War II to build up Western Europe by giving war-torn nations billions of dollars.

McCulloch v. Maryland Supreme Court ruling of 1819 that used the elastic clause to justify a national bank.

Medicaid program providing medical benefits to the poor.

Medicare program providing medical benefits to the elderly; an immense and growing portion of the federal budget.

midterm elections congressional elections held in years without a presidential contest.

minority floor leader chief spokesperson and legislative strategist for the minority party in the House of Representatives.

Miranda warning speech given by police to suspects upon making an arrest; informs suspects of their constitutional rights.

Missouri Compromise deal negotiated in 1820 by Kentuckian Henry Clay to prevent a clash between Northern and Southern states over the slavery issue; required that the nation admit states in pairs, one slave and one free.

Monroe Doctrine formulated in 1823, promised that the U.S. would stay out of European affairs but would oppose European attempts to colonize the Americas.

muckrakers critical investigative journalists especially active at exposing corruption during the Progressive Era.

National Security Council large foreign policy council responsible for advising the president on foreign policy.

natural rights fundamental limits on what government can take away from individuals.

necessary and proper clause constitutional provision giving Congress the right to make all laws "necessary and proper" to put its powers into effect. Used to justify wide expansion of government authority. Also called the elastic clause.

negative advertising campaign ads that criticize an opponent rather than promote a candidate.

New Federalism Nixon's attempt to return authority to the states.

New Jersey Plan moderate departure from the Articles of Confederation proposed as a response to the Virginia Plan; favored by smaller states.

nonpartisan issues that have nothing to do with party politics.

nonpartisan elections elections in which candidates cannot identify their party affiliation on the ballot.

North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) opened trade among three countries: the U.S., Canada, and Mexico.

Office of Management and Budget (OMB) used by the president to filter proposed regulations and budgetary requests from the federal bureaucracy.

Open Door policy U.S. proposal to settle disputes over trade with China in the early twentieth century; would allow the European powers and the U.S. to trade with China equally.

open elections elections in which no candidate currently holds the office.

open primary primary election in which independents, and sometimes also members of other parties, may help select a party's candidate in the general election.

party platform the formal statement of a political party's beliefs and goals.

patronage jobs awarded to people for faithful political service.

Pendleton Act passed in 1883, created the civil service system of hiring and retaining federal workers independent of their political allegiance.

Pentagon papers classified documents detailing American policy in Vietnam; the U.S. Supreme Court did not allow the Nixon administration to censor their publication.

People's party primarily rural political party active in the late nineteenth century that opposed Eastern corporate interests, especially the railroads. Also called the Populist party.

perestroika Policy of economic restructuring introduced by Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev intended to open the Soviet economy, thereby avoiding continued economic crisis.

plaintiff person bringing a suit against a defendant.

planks individual issue positions mentioned in a party platform.

platform the formal statement of a political party's beliefs and goals.

plea bargain when a defendant admits to a lesser crime to avoid facing more serious charges in court.

pocket veto when the president rejects a bill by refusing to sign it after Congress has adjourned.

political action committees (PACs) interest groups that raise and distribute money to candidates.

political machines urban political organizations that dominated city politics by providing supporters with jobs and favorable attention from government.

Populist party primarily rural political party active in the late nineteenth century that opposed Eastern corporate interests, especially the railroads. Also called the People's party.

populists politicians who favor an active government to help common people.

pork-barrel legislation a bill funding improvement projects, such as highway construction.

precedent prior body of law that must govern a court's decision in a particular case.

president of the Senate role played by the vice-president as the Senate's presiding officer; breaks tie votes.

president pro tempore official who leads the Senate's day-to-day operations.

primary election also called primaries, these contests allow voters to pick which candidate will represent a party in the general election.

print media journalistic outlets that communicate using the printed word (newspapers, magazines).

prior restraint When government censors a message before it is communicated, rather than punishing it afterward.

probable cause Fourth Amendment limit on the conditions under which a federal judge may issue a search warrant.

Progressive party coalition of farmers, unions, and middle-class reformers that challenged two-party dominance during the early twentieth century.

progressive taxes taxes that burden people more when they have greater income or wealth.

Prohibition party long-lived single-issue party that opposed the consumption of alcoholic beverages.

project grant a categorical grant awarded on the basis of competitive applications to accomplish a specific task.

proportional representation a system in which parties receive seats in a legislative body roughly proportional to their share of the votes.

public interest groups interest groups that claim to speak for the American public at large.

punitive damages additional monetary fine imposed on a defendant to ensure that damages are not repeated.

rationality test applied to most governmental laws that categorize people; only requires that the differential treatment have a rational basis. Not used for categorization based upon race, religion, or gender, for example.

Reapportionment Act of 1929 fixed the House of Representatives at 435 voting members.

reapportionment the adjustment of Congressional districts that follows a federal census; intended to keep district populations balanced.

recall an election that allows voters to remove an incumbent from office.

red tape complications and paperwork imposed on government agencies to ensure that their actions conform to the intent of a law.

referendum when a law or constitutional amendment passed by a state legislature must be approved by voters before taking effect.

Reform party political party that regularly nominates outsiders for public office, often those dedicated to increasing public participation in government, lowering the federal budget deficit, and reducing trade with foreign countries.

regressive taxes taxes that hit hardest on those who are less well off. Also sometimes applied to taxes that treat everyone equally.

regulation rules placed by the federal government on how industries operate.

regulatory commissions federal agencies with responsibility in specific areas of policy.

regulatory policy the policy setting governmental regulations.

representative sample a group selected for polling in which everyone in a population had an equal chance of being selected.

reverse discrimination when a law or policy works so hard to protect a minority group that it unfairly penalizes members of the dominant group.

riders unrelated provisions stuck into a bill.

Rules Committee powerful House body that decides the terms under which bills are heard, amended, and debated.

runoff election contest in which the top two vote-getters from a previous election face off to decide the ultimate winner.

schema a set of beliefs, or a story, applied when trying to understand a particular political event.

Second Continental Congress assumed governmental functions in the American colonies after the battles of Lexington and Concord in 1775.

select committees temporary legislative committees that consider specific issues, especially to investigate problems. Also called special committees.

selective incorporation the process of applying the Bill of Rights to the states selectively, based upon a judicial judgment of which rights are fundamental.

self-incrimination when individuals testify against themselves in a court hearing; Fifth Amendment forbids forcing anyone to do this.

seniority the number of years someone has served in an institution or on a committee.

separation of powers idea that different governmental powers should be placed in separate branches (or institutions) so that no one interest can monopolize governmental authority.

Shay's Rebellion revolt of Western Massachusetts farmers in the winter of 1786-1787, in which they demanded relief from debts.

sin taxes taxes imposed on products that many people consider "sinful," such as liquor, cigarettes, and gambling; intended both to discourage use of these products and to let government profit off the people who continue to use them.

single-member districts geographical units that select a sole representative for a legislative body.

slander untrue statements harmful to a person's reputation that are communicated orally.

slate a party's list of candidates for multiple offices.

social welfare policy governmental policies intended to improve the causes and effects of poverty.

Socialist party left-wing political party active in the early twentieth century; generally supported an aggressive redistribution of wealth.

sound bite a short remark by a politician that fits well into broadcast news stories.

Southern strategy Richard Nixon's law-and-order emphasis when running for president; used to attract votes in the Southern states.

special committees temporary legislative committees that consider specific issues, especially to investigate problems. Also called select committees.

special envoys individuals engaging in diplomatic communications on the president's behalf who do not require Senate confirmation.

spin the slant placed on political news by individuals with a vested interest in how the public interprets the news.

split ticket when voters select candidates from different parties for different offices.

spoils system system in which government employees are selected for party loyalty and replaced when a new administration takes power.

stagflation the condition of both high unemployment (stagnation) and inflation.

standing committees permanent legislative committees that sift through proposed legislation.

stare decisis doctrine that compels a court to build on precedent, letting previous decisions stand.

State's Rights party primarily Southern political party used as a vehicle to challenge President Truman's civil rights program in 1948.

states' rights idea that federal encroachment on state powers is a constitutional violation.

statutory interpretation when a court must interpret the meaning of laws passed by a legislature.

strict scrutiny when federal courts will permit a law only if it implements a "compelling government interest"; usually applied in cases involving race or religion.

subcommittees legislative groups smaller than whole committees responsible for very specific areas of law.

suffrage the right to vote.

superior courts the first level of state trial courts, usually organized by county.

supremacy clause constitutional provision declaring national law to be supreme across the United States.

tabloid press the "supermarket papers" that carry on the tradition of yellow journalism in modern times.

tariffs taxes on goods imported into the country; the main source of federal revenue before the twentieth century.

term limits restrictions on how long a public official may serve.

Three-Fifths Compromise helped settle the Constitutional Convention's debate over slavery. Slaves would be treated as three-fifths of a person for determining a state's tax burden and number of representatives.

total incorporation a belief that the states may not violate any provisions of the first eight amendments of the Bill of Rights; has never enjoyed the support of a Supreme Court majority.

trade associations economic interest groups that represent an entire industry.

Truman Doctrine committed the United States to protecting "free peoples" of Europe from attack.

trustees representatives who see their job as using their best judgment when voting.

unanimous consent agreement an agreement to which everyone consents on when to debate a bill.

unemployment rate the percentage of people in the labor force who lack jobs.

unfunded mandates legislative requirement placed upon state and local government by Congress for which no funding is provided.

unicameral a legislature with only one chamber.

Union party Republicans reorganized themselves as the Union party in 1864 to attract votes from the War Democrats.

unitary government system of government in which a central authority holds all power.

universal manhood suffrage a term used to signify that all men could vote, regardless of wealth or religion. When first coined, the term did not apply to African Americans.

value-added tax a national sales tax that would impact products at each stage of their production.

Virginia Plan James Madison's proposal for a new plan of government at the Constitutional Convention.

Voting Rights Act of 1965 took numerous measures to ensure that racial minorities would enjoy full voting rights; banned literacy tests, required federal marshals to register voters in some counties, and regulated how some states could draw legislative districts.

War Powers Act of 1973 attempt by Congress to limit the president's power to send American troops into combat; requires the president to get congressional approval if American troops are to be on foreign soil for 60 days or more.

welfare state system in which the national government assumes major responsibility for social conditions.

Whig party a nineteenth-century political party; it was one of the two major parties until breaking up in the 1850s. Supported an active national government.

whips legislative leaders who whip their party members into line on votes.

white flight when whites leave a neighborhood or school system to avoid integration.

White House Office the president's main support personnel, including secretaries and lawyers.

winner-take-all elections contests in which the candidate with the most votes takes an office, and the votes for losing candidates do not make a difference.

World Bank an international organization that assists developing economies by providing loans and technological assistance.

World Trade Organization (WTO) used by the United States to open foreign markets to American goods and protect American patents abroad.

writ of certiorari a request to the Supreme Court that it review a decision made by lower courts.

yellow journalism sensational approach to selecting and reporting news, popularized by William Randolph Hearst.