In addition to being a site for the nitrogen cycle, the soil is the environment in which several other biogeochemical cycles take place. Among these are the cycles of phosphorus, sulfur, carbon, and oxygen.
The phosphorus cycle. Living things use phosphorus compounds in the synthesis of nucleotides, phospholipids, and phosphorylated proteins. Phosphorus enters the soil and water as phosphate ions, such as calcium phosphate, during the breakdown of crops, decaying garbage, leaf litter, and other sources.
In the phosphorus cycle, microorganisms use phosphorus in the form of calcium phosphate, magnesium phosphate, and iron phosphate. They release the phosphorus from these complexes and assimilate the phosphorus as the phosphate ion (PO4). This ion is incorporated into DNA, RNA, and other organic compounds using phosphate, including phospholipids. When the organisms are used as foods by larger organisms, the phosphorus enters and is concentrated in the food chain.
The sulfur cycle. Sulfur makes up a small percentage of the dry weight of a cell (approximately 1 percent), but it is an important element in the formation of certain amino acids such as cystine, methionine, and glutathione. It is also used in the formation of many enzymes.
Many bacteria have an important place in the sulfur cycle in the soil. Sulfate-reducing bacteria grow in mud and anaerobic water environments, where they reduce sulfur-containing amino acids to hydrogen sulfide (H2S). Hydrogen sulfideaccumulates in the mud of a swamp and gives the environment an odor of rotten eggs.
In the cycle's next step, photosynthetic sulfur bacteria metabolize the hydrogen sulfide anaerobically. They oxidize the H2S, thereby releasing the sulfur as elemental sulfur (S). Elemental sulfur accumulates in the soil. Species of colorless sulfur bacteria, including members of the genera Thiobacillus, Beggiatoa, and Thiothrix, also metabolize the hydrogen sulfide, converting it to sulfate ions, which are then made available to plants for amino acid formation.
The carbon cycle. Most of the organic matter present in soil originates in plant material from dead leaves, rotting trees, decaying roots, and other plant tissues. Animal tissues enter the soil after death. In the carbon cycle, soil bacteria and fungi recycle the carbon of proteins, fats, and carbohydrates by using the organic plant and animal matter in their metabolism. Without the recycling of carbon, life would suffer an irreversible decline as nutrients essential for life were bound in complex molecules.
The organic matter of organisms is digested by extracellular microbial enzymes into soluble products. Fungi and bacteria then metabolize the soluble organic products to simpler products such as carbon dioxide and acetic, propionic, and other small acids, as well as other materials available for plant growth. These elements are made available to the root systems of plants. Undigested plant and animal matter becomes part of the humus.
The oxygen cycle. In the oxygen cycle, oxygen is a key element for the chemical reactions of cellular respiration (glycolysis, Krebs cycle, electron transport, chemiosmosis). The atmosphere is the chief reservoir of oxygen available for these processes. Oxygen is returned to the atmosphere for use in metabolism by photosynthetic green plants and photosynthetic microorganisms such as cyanobacteria. During the process of photosynthesis, these organisms liberate oxygen from water and release it to the atmosphere. The oxygen is then available to heterotrophic organisms for use in their metabolism.