A square is a quadrilateral with all right angles and all equal sides. A square is also a parallelogram, a rectangle, and a rhombus and has all the properties of all these special quadrilaterals. Figure 3 shows a square.
Figure 3 A square has four right angles and four equal sides.
Figure 4 summarizes the relationships of these quadrilaterals to one another.
Figure 4 The relationships among the various types of quadrilaterals.
Example 1: Identify the following figures 5.
Figure 5 Identify these polygons.
(a) pentagon, (b) rectangle, (c) hexagon, (d) parallelogram, (e) triangle, (f) square, (g) rhombus, (h) quadrilateral, (i) octagon, and (j) regular pentagon
Example 2: In Figure 6, find m ∠ A, m ∠ C, m ∠ D, CD, and AD.
Figure 6 A parallelogram with one angle specified.
m ∠ A = m ∠ C = 80°, because consecutive angles of a parallelogram are supplementary.
m ∠ D = 100°, because opposite angles of a parallelogram are equal.
CD = 8 and AD = 4, because opposite sides of a parallelogram are equal.
Example 3: In Figure 7, find TR, QP, PS, TP, and PR.
Figure 7 A rectangle with one diagonal specified.
TR = 15, because diagonals of a rectangle are equal.
QP = PS = TP = PR = 7.5, because diagonals of a rectangle bisect each other.
Example 4: In Figure 8, find m ∠ MOE, m ∠ NOE, and m ∠ MYO.
Figure 8 A rhombus with one angle specified.
m ∠ MOE = m ∠ NOE = 70°, because diagonals of a rhombus bisect opposite angles.
m ∠ MYO = 90°, because diagonals of a rhombus are perpendicular.