Julius Caesar By William Shakespeare Study Help Full Glossary

abide take responsibility for.

accidental evils pain or troubles happening by chance.

accoutred dressed.

address'd prepared.

ague a fever marked by regularly recurring chills

alchymy an early form of chemistry, with philosophic and magical associations, studied in the Middle Ages. Its chief aims were to change base metals into gold and to discover the elixir of perpetual youth.

alive here, of present concern.

alone on Cassius on Cassius alone.

along horizontal.

ambition's debt Caesar got what he deserved.

and none so poor to do him reverence No one is so lowly that they owe Caesar respect.

and reason to my love is liable Decius claims that it is out of love that he tells Caesar this even though he risks anger.

And since the quarrel / Will bear no color for the thing he is Brutus recognizes that his argument (quarrel) doesn't work (bears no color) because Caesar has not behaved as Brutus suggests he will.

annoy to harm by repeated attacks.

answer'd it paid for it.

answering acting in response or retaliation.

apt ready, prepared.

apt thoughts of men men who are ready to be deceived.

are rid to get free from or relieved of.

art here, philosophic theory.

as as if.

as his kind according to his nature.

at the stake fastened to a stake.

ate goddess of discord.

augmented to become greater, increase. Here, when Caesar gets what he wants (is augmented), he will behave as Brutus has previously described.

bade bid.

base degrees the rungs upon the ladder he has just climbed. Caesar will turn on the people beneath him.

basis pedestal.

bastard here, one who is so cowardly that he will not keep fighting.

battles battalions of soldiers.

bay'd about surrounded as by baying dogs.

be factious join our faction.

be resolv'd be answered, have explained to him.

be satisfied to answer adequately or convincingly.

bear his comment be subjected to scrutiny.

bear me a bang receive a blow from me.

bear me hard hold a grudge against me.

bears with glasses bears were thought to be vain and would stop to look at themselves in a mirror.

beat us to the pit driven us to a pit, as in a pit dug to trap hunted animals, or as in a grave.

beg demand.

belike probably.

bending their expedition marching their troops.

bent direction.

better parts qualities.

beyond all use beyond normal experience.

bid him set on his pow'rs betimes before Tell him to advance his troops early in the morning, before mine.

bills statements, usually itemized, of charges for goods or services.

bondman slave, one who is not entirely free of a master.

bootless without benefit, useless.

bouge move, flinch.

brav'd defied.

break with tell our secret to him.

brother Cassius had married a sister of Brutus.

Brutus only overcame himself Brutus alone slayed Brutus.

by him to his house.

by lottery as Caesar's eye falls on each man by chance.

by means whereof as a result of

call in question discuss.

carrions men near death.

Cato Brutus' father-in-law who fought for Pompey and committed suicide at Utica Brutus' stoic philosophy disapproved of suicide.

Cato Cato of Utica, known for his integrity.

cautelous deceitful.

change here, exchange of advantage.

charactery of my sad brows the sadness that is written on his face.

check'd reproved.

chidden berated.

chopp'd reddened and chapped.

close concealed.

closet a small, private room for reading and meditation, often a study for men, a place of meditation and solitude for women.

cold demeanor detached in one's outward behavior.

cold modesty moderation, the least he could say.

Colossus the gigantic statue of Apollo set at the entrance to the harbor of Rhodes and included among the Seven Wonders of the World.

combin'd augmented.

common laughter a frivolous man.

common pleasures public pleasure grounds.

common pulpits public platforms.

Companion, hence! Get out!

conceit judge.

conceited understood.

conceptions original ideas, designs, plans.

conference conversation.

confidence overconfidence.

conn'd learned.

consorted accompanied or escorted.

constancy steadiness of affections or loyalties.

corporal bodily.

corse a dead body, corpse.

costly precious.

couchings low bows

could be content to visit other places would rather be elsewhere.

counsel a secret.

counsels secret intentions or resolutions.

countenance approval, support, or sanction.

craves to be in great need of.

crown him that crown him emperor.

cumber encumber.

custom of fell deeds commonness of evil deeds.

cut off some charge in legacies determine how not to pay off Caesar's bequests.

cynic a member of a school of ancient Greek philosophers who held virtue to be the only good and stressed independence from worldly needs and pleasures. The cynics became critical of the rest of society and its material interests.

dearer more keenly.

did take it took the standard.

die once die at some point.

digest swallow instead of vent.

dint impression.

discourse discussion.

discover to reveal, disclose, or expose.

disgest digest.

dishonor shall be humor I'll interpret your insults as the results of your anger.

disjoins remorse from power separates conscience from authority.

do grace pay respect.

drawn upon a heap huddled.

durst dared.

element the sky.

the elements any of the four substances (earth, air, fire, and water) formerly believed to constitute all physical matter

empty unburdened or discharged; here, relieved of his load

encompass'd allowed room for.

enforc'd emphasized.

ensign an officer who served as flag bearer.

entertain to keep up or maintain.

Epicurus Greek philosopher and founder of the Epicurean school, which held that the goal of man should be a life characterized by serenity of mind and the enjoyment of moderate pleasure; Epicureans did not believe in omens and portents.

erns grieves

et tu, Bruté? and thou, Brutus?

even with a thought quickly.

ever thick Cassius tells us that his eyesight is poor. He is short-sighted. Note the irony of this phrase, because Cassius will shortsightedly commit suicide.

excepted unless.

exhalations meteors.

exigent calling for immediate action or attention.

exorcist one who summons spirits.

extenuated diminished.

fain with eagerness, gladly.

fall drop.

fall happen.

falling sickness epilepsy.

familiar instances tokens of intimacy.

favor appearance or look.

fearful bravery a display of courage to hide their fear.

fears mistrusts.

fell here, swooped down.

ferret eyes red, angry eyes.

field a military area away from the post or headquarters.

figures dreams.

first motion the first proposal of the murder of Caesar by Cassius.

fleering sneering or jeering.

fond to be so foolish as to.

For if thou path, they native semblance on, / Not Erebus itself were dim enough / To hide thee from prevention If you show your true nature in your face, not even the darkness of the underworld will be able to hide you from being recognized and stopped.

forc'd affection the people are not really with us.

former ensign foremost banner.

forms long, wooden benches without backs.

fortune is merry fortune is kind to me.

freedom of permission.

fret interlace.

from quality and kind behaving unnaturally.

full of good regard right, reasonable.

general coffers public coffers.

general the public good.

The Genius and the mortal instruments / Are then in council; and the state of a man, / Like to a little kingdom, suffers then / The nature of an insurrection Because of Cassius' suggestions, Brutus' mind (Genius) and body (mortal instruments) are in conflict. Thus, he cannot sleep.

gentle noble, chivalrous.

gentle noble.

gently in a gentle manner; here, slowly.

ghastly ghostlike, pale, or haggard.

give place make way.

give you audience hear you out with the extra connotation of Brutus as leader hearing the grievances of an inferior.

gives way allows conspiracy to take place.

glaz'd gazed.

The gods to-day stand friendly May the gods be friendly.

good respect a state of being held in honor or esteem.

grace his speech listen courteously.

gracious drops full of grace, they do you honor.

griefs grievances.

griefs historically, grievances.

hair to stare to stand on end.

happy time at an opportune moment.

hart a male of the European red deer, especially after its fifth year, when the crown antlers are formed; here, with a play on heart

hath given me some worthy cause . . . be satisfied Brutus is saying that he feels he has been wronged by Cassius and that the latter ought to explain himself.

he greets me well sends a good man to greet me.

He, only . . . made one of them Brutus was the only conspirator who did what he did out of nobility and integrity.

hearse coffin.

hearts of controversy excitement.

Here, as I point my sword . . . Stands, as the Capitol, directly here Casca's point here is that the sword he points toward the Capitol will, by the violence it inflicts on Caesar, bring about a new day for Rome.

hie to hurry or hasten.

high-sighted haughty, arrogant.

hinds female red deer.

hollow empty or worthless; here, insincere.

honest held in respect, honorable.

honesty personal honor.

honors this corruption makes the corruption seem honorable.

the horse the cavalry.

hot at hand lively in the beginning.

how covert matters may be best disclos'd to make plans about how to disclose hidden dangers.

how ill this taper burns reflecting the common belief that a candle's light will diminish when a ghost is present

howted cheered.

howting hooting.

Hybla bees bees renowned for the sweetness of their honey. Hybla was in Sicily.

I am in their bosoms I know what they mean to do.

I had as lief I would rather.

I have not known when his affections sway'd / More than his reason Brutus is suggesting that Caesar is not ruled by passion but is very calculating in his desire for power.

I swore thee I made you promise.

ides of March in the ancient Roman calendar, the 15th day of March.

I'll know his humor, when he knows his time I'll listen to him with an open mind when he approaches me at the appropriate time.

improve make the most of them.

in sort or limitation in a limited way.

in strength of malice we will be as kind to you as we were harmful to Caesar.

in such a case on his behalf or in that type of case.

in the order of his funeral at his funeral.

in triumph in ancient Rome, a procession celebrating the return of a victorious general and his army.

in use common.

incertain uncertain.

incorporate a party to.

incorporate and make us one the vows of marriage.

indifferently showing no partiality, bias, or preference.

indirection dishonesty.

ingrafted established firmly.

insuppressive irrepressible.

issue deed.

it is not thus for your health it's not good for you.

it would become me better it would be better for me to weep than ally myself with your enemies.

itching palm desire for gold.

jades worn-out or worthless horses.

jealous on resentfully suspicious of a rival or a rival's influence.

just correct or true.

keep his state maintain a court.

knave a serving boy or male servant.

lamb a loved person; here, meaning Brutus himself, whose anger is now spent.

latest last.

law of children rules of a child's game that may be changed and have little consequence.

lead on our days to age live a long life.

leaden mace a heavy medieval war club, often with a spiked, metal head; here, the music puts Lucius to sleep.

let slip unleash.

Lethe the river of forgetfulness, flowing through Hades, whose water produces loss of memory in those who drink of it; here, Caesar's lifeblood.

letters here, written pleas.

light here, alight.

live if I live.

look whe'er he have not crown'd dead Cassius! see how he has placed the garland on Cassius.

lovers friends.

lowliness false humility.

made brought in.

make head go forward, advance. Here, to raise an army.

make to him on the spur move rapidly toward him.

makes to walks toward.

marry indeed (an oath based on the name of the Virgin Mary)

mart buying and selling.

a masker and a reveler reference to Antony's fondness for revelry that will become an important element of Antony and Cleopatra.

mean manner.

mechanical of manual labor or manual laborers.

meet suitable and proper.

merry full of fun and laughter.

might have rul'd had prevailed.

mighty space of our large honors our great reputations.

modestly quietly and humbly, not pretentiously.

moe more.

more void less crowded.

mortified to destroy the vitality or vigor of.

the mother here, refers to Cassius whose melancholy caused him to accept the false report and kill himself.

murther murder.

mutiny uproar.

my misgiving still / falls shrewdly to the purpose I'm usually right about these things.

Nervii a Belgian tribe defeated by Caesar.

nice offense trivial offense.

niggard here, put off or cheat.

nor heaven nor earth neither heaven nor earth.

not sensible not having appreciation or understanding.

noted historically, branded and disgraced.

nothing jealous not doubtful.

now be a freeman Pindarus was a prisoner of war and Cassius is offering him his freedom if he will do as he asks.

objects sights.

observe adhere to.

o'erwatch'd overworked and worn out from lack of sleep.

offal refuse or garbage.

Olympus in Greek mythology, the home of the gods.

on the hazard at stake.

One that feeds . . . begin his fashion Lepidus is not as up-to-date as Antony and Octavius. He follows trends rather than leads.

only I yield to die I yield in order to die, not to escape death.

ope open.

or . . . or either . . . or.

order of the course how the race goes.

ordered honorably treated with respect.

ordinance an established or prescribed practice or usage.

otherwise bethink me change my mind.

our ventures what we have risked so far.

out of the teeth of emulation beyond the reach of the envious.

own proper our own.

palter to talk or act insincerely.

part share.

part the numbers split up the crowd.

passion grief.

passions of some difference conflicting emotions.

performed natural.

phantasma an hallucination.

philosophy a particular system of principles for the conduct of life; here Cassius refers to Brutus' stoic beliefs.

philosophy a particular system of principles for the conduct of life; in Brutus' case, stoicism

physical healthy.

pitch a term from falconry. A pitch is the highest point of a hawk's flight from which it swoops down on its prey.

pitiful full of pity or compassion.

pity pity pity for Rome was more important than pity for Caesar.

Pluto the god ruling over the lower world, but here, confused with Plutus the god of wealth.

Pompey Roman general and one of the triumvirs, along with Caesar and Crassus, defeated by Caesar in 48 BC and later murdered.

Pompey's Porch the portico of a theater built in 55 B.C. by Pompey.

the posture of your blows what sort of blows you will deliver.

praetor a magistrate of ancient Rome, next below a consul in rank. Brutus was the chief praetor.

prefer here, recommend.

preordinance and first decree decisions already made.

presage foreshadowing quality

present sacrifice immediate sacrifice.

presently at once, instantly.

presently prefer immediately present.

press to crowd or throng.

prevent the time of life cut life short.

prick'd checked on a list.

prick'd in number of our friends counted as a friend.

proceeding political well-being.

prodigies extraordinary happenings, thought to foretell good or evil fortune.

proof experience.

property tool.

protest proclaim before he does.

protester one who professes friendship.

provender provisions, food

puissant powerful and strong.

purpos'd preordained.

put on our purposes reveal our purposes.

quartered divided into quarters.

the question of his death is enroll'd in the Capitol justification for his death is recorded.

quick mettle lively and spirited.

Quite from the main opinion he held once in contrast to the way he once thought.

rank overripe and ready to be cut down, that is, killed.

rascal counters worthless coins.

rash choler quick anger or ill humor.

rated berated.

ravens, crows, and kites eaters of carrion and thus inferior to the nobility of the eagle.

reason with the worst imagine and consider the worst.

regard and honor respect and affection; here, both that Cassius has high regard for Brutus and is himself a man of integrity.

remains what is left; here, what is left of my friends.

repealing recall.

respect repute.

resting quality stability.

rheumy dank.

riv'd split.

rout a disorderly crowd or noisy mob.

rude barbarous or ignorant.

ruffle up arouse.

sate sat.

saying Lucilius claimed that Brutus would never allow himself to be captured alive. (See Act V, Scene 4.)

scandal to disgrace.

scarfs sashes worn by soldiers or officials.

schedule a paper with writing on it.

scope room or opportunity for freedom of action or thought.

set on your foot take the first step.

several different.

several hands different handwriting.

several individual.

shadow a mirrored image or reflection.

show'd the torchlight as a signal.

show'd your teeth smiled.

sick offense an illness, but also a suggestion that Portia knows Brutus is planning to do something wrong.

sign'd in thy spoil marked with signs of your death, that is, with blood.

sland'rous loads Octavius and Antony are going to use Lepidus to do some of the dirty work that will be necessary.

slighted off treated with disrespect or indifference.

smatch smack or taste.

so mix'd so balanced.

softly here, slowly.

soil to smirch or stain.

sparks stars, with reference also to the comets of Act II, Scene 1.

speed me help me forward.

speed thee give you success.

spleen malice, spite, or bad temper.

spoil to seize goods by force.

stale make common or meaningless.

stand not to answer don't try to change my mind.

stand upon think important.

stares historically, glares.

start a spirit raise a spirit.

stay to wait.

stays pauses, tarries, waits, or delays.

stomachs desires or inclinations; here, their desire to fight.

stood on ceremonies listened to omens.

straight without delay.

strook struck.

suburbs literally outside the walls of the city. The suburbs were often where brothels were situated. Note that Portia refers to herself as a harlot in the second line following.

suck up the humors breathe the air.

surest answered best met.

swallow'd fire Plutarch says that Portia died by swallowing live coals.

sway to rule over or control.

swounded swooned or fainted.

tardy form slow manner.

taste measure. Here, Lepidus follows rather than leads.

tenure here, import.

Thasos island of Greece in the north Aegean; near Phillipi. Plutarch writes that Cassius was buried there.

That unicorns may be betray'd with trees The story was that a hunter, standing in front of a tree, could lure a unicorn into running at him and then step aside at the last minute. The unicorn's horn would be stuck in the tree.

their servants our passions.

there is so much that thou wilt kill me straight here is what will make you kill me (that he is Brutus).

thews muscles or sinews.

thorough passing through.

three and thirty wounds a reference to Christ's age at his death. Antony is suggesting that Caesar has been sacrificed by the conspirators.

threefold word divided These three men declared themselves a triumvirate and controlled the empire between them.

tide of times course of history.

toils nets for trapping.

to-night last night.

to-night last night.

tributaries captive princes who will pay tribute.

tried here, got as much support from our friends as possible.

triumph in ancient Rome, a procession celebrating the return of a victorious general and his army.

triumvirate Group of three men — Mark Antony, Octavius, and Marcus Lepidus — who band together in order to rule over the Roman Empire.

true rites rightful ceremonies.

try to settle (a matter, quarrel, and so on) by a test or contest.

turn him going send him off.

unbraced with doublet (a man's closefitting jacket with or without sleeves) open.

under your pardon let me finish.

unfold to me reveal, disclose, display, or explain.

unluckily charge my fantasy fill my mind with fears.

unmeritable weak man, not deserving of the same status as Antony and Octavius.

unpurged air that has not been cleansed by the sun.

untrod state new and unknown state of affairs.

upon a wish as I wished.

urge press; here, push.

use to act or behave toward, treat.

uttermost at the latest.

vesture clothing, garments, apparel.

vildly vilely; badly.

vouchsafe to be gracious enough or condescend to give or grant.

vulgar of the great mass of people in general; common; popular.

wafter waving.

want lack.

watch your pleasure stay awake and do as you bid.

watchful cares worries that keep them up at night.

we fear prevention that our plans will be thwarted.

wear a kerchief to be ill.

whelped given birth.

wherefore for what reason or purpose; why.

wherefore why.

whet to make keen, stimulate.

the which the outcome of the test.

will crowd a feeble man almost to death there is some ambiguity whether the soothsayer refers to himself or to Caesar.

windows historically, shutters.

wit intellectual and perceptive powers.

with your arms across arms folded, taken as a sign of melancholy.

with your will as you wish.

wonderful that causes wonder.

yawn'd opened up.

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