Characters whose names are followed by an asterisk are known to have been historical figures.
Cyrano de Bergerac* The main character of the play. He is a soldier, poet, philosopher, and scientist — a man of immense courage, versatility, and talent. He has an enormous nose and is very sensitive about it. He is an expert swordsman and challenges anyone who mentions his nose. He jealously guards his intellectual freedom, even though he suffers poverty. His integrity and innate nobility of spirit are the theme of the play.
Christian de Neuvillette Cyrano's comrade-in-arms. A handsome man of noble spirit and generosity. He is in love with Roxane, but unable to express his love in such a way as to be acceptable to her. He is not stupid, but is actually inarticulate.
Roxane (Madeleine Robin)* The beautiful girl with whom both Cyrano and Christian are in love. She falls in love with Christian's beauty and (though she is unaware of it) Cyrano's mind. She is described as a précieuse, which, in seventeenth-century France, meant a person highly affected in language, manners, and dress. To the précieuse, what a person was is not so important as what he appeared to be. Some of them, wishing to appear witty, are said to have rehearsed repartee amongst themselves before going to a party. Moliere wrote a play, Les Précieuse Ridicules, making fun of them. Christian is afraid that Roxane, being a précieuse, would not love a plain-spoken man.
Comte de Guiche* The villain of the play, Richelieu's nephew, who wants Roxane as his mistress, and wishes her to marry Valvert. Solely for revenge against Christian and Cyrano, he sends the Gascony Guards to almost certain death.
Le Bret* Cyrano's friend and confidant.
Ragueneau A poet who runs a bakery shop where other poets congregate.
Lise Wife of Ragueneau.
Carbon de Castel-Jaloux* The commander of the Gascony Guards.
Lignière* A poet, Cyrano's friend. Cyrano single-handedly routs the one hundred men sent to kill Lignière*
Valvert A précieuse who insults Cyrano by referring to his nose. He is the man De Guiche wants Roxane to marry. It is to him that the famous speech of insults is addressed, and it is he with whom Cyrano duels while composing a poem.
Montfleury* An actor, one of Roxane's suitors. He has incurred Cyrano's displeasure and has been forbidden by Cyrano to act on the stage for three weeks.
Bellerose* Manager of the theater that Cyrano closes by not allowing Montfleury to act.
Jodelet* A comedian in the same theater.
Cuigy* Brissaille* Friends of Cyrano.
Soeur Marthe Soeur Claire Nuns in the convent where Roxane goes to live.
Mere Marguerite de Jesus Mother Superior at the same convent.