In a story, a dynamic character
is someone who undergoes an important, internal change because of the action in the plot. Ebenezer Scrooge, from Charles Dickens's A Christmas Carol
, is a classic example. When we first meet him, he is mean, bitter, and avaricious. Through his experiences with the three ghosts, he becomes generous, kind, and beloved.
A static character
is one whose personality doesn't change throughout the events in the story's plot. Dickens, again, is the source of an example in Joe Gargery, from Great Expectations
. Joe remains faithful, honorable, and loyal despite being robbed by a convict and treated poorly by his wife and nephew.